Abduction. Crime consisting in taking a woman by force or through efficient prayers, or in the case of being a minor of twelve years old.


Ratihabition. It is the declaration of the will of someone with respect to an act another made on his behalf , approving it and confirming its validity. According to this, the ratihabition differs from the ratification only in that the second has a more external meaning including the ratification as the genre includes the specie, since the ratification is the confirmation of we have done before and of what another has done on our behalf without there being a prior agency, while the ratihabition has retroactive legal effects to the day in which the contract or the legal act was performed, Ratihabitatio retratrahitur ad initium (the ratihabition causes the revert to the beginning), provided that from its origin the act or contract has not been legally null, since it is already known the legal rule by which what is null from the beginning is always null.


However, this nullity should be substantial or absolute, if not, if there was only an external defect giving rise to the contract recession by restitution of the thing, by virtue of the ratihabition law the contract or legal act would be valid, therefore having all the force it would be capable to have.The ratihabition is equivalent to the agency; ratihabitatio mandato equiparatur, so when someone ratifies what another did on our behalf this is equivalent to having ordered to be done on his behalf said act or contract.

Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur

Ratihabition is equivalent to the agency. This rule implies that the approval of what another did on our behalf is worth the same as if we had ordered it to be done.


Account, calculation. Originally it referred to the private or public accounts, but as an extension, during the Empire, it referred to a financial administration, a service with the corresponding staff and their offices. The res privata (private matter) had as an appurtenance the service of the property of the empress, the ratio Augustae, and the ratio operarum publicarum.

Ratio dicendi

Oratory skill.

Ratio studiorum

Curricula. Latin expression referred to the plan or method of study which the usage applied to curricula of the schools of the Company of Jesus, or also to the book where said plan is included.

Rationabile obsequium

Reasonable gift. Words of Saint Paul to refer to the fact that the submission of the believer to the divine authority is based on rational reasons.


Officers. Officers in charge of administering in Rome the aerarium sacrum or sacrae largitiones, and the private exchequer of the emperor. The word rationales derives "ratio" many times replacing the word solicitor. For the revenue authorities the a rationibus is called rationalis since the times of the flavius, the two terms existing together till the age of Diocletianus, but with some alterations, till between the years 340 and 345 the title rationalis was replaced by comes sacrarum largitionum. For the res privata the title of magister privatae rei (master of the private thing) was replaced by the rationalis privatae after 325, turning into comes rei privatae (associate of the private thing) upon the year 340.

Ratione materiae

As to the subject matter.

Rationibus subductis

After the accounts being casted.

Re cum re

One thing with another.

Rebus augustis animosus, atque fortis appare

On difficult times, behave with character and strength. It is a sappic and a half of the II Ode of Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) by which he appeals to the greatness of character on difficult times. Frequently cited by speakers in order to stimulate the courage of the ones who doubt or want to leave their venture.

Rebus in arctis

On difficult things. It is used when the intention is to praise the glorious and worthy nature of undertaking difficult or hard things. Also referred to as: Rebus in arduis.

Rebus servate secundis

Keep yourselves for more successful things. Hemistich of the Aeneid I of Virgilius after wrecking with his partners in the coasts of Italy. He admonished them to sep their efforts and hope to restore the kingdom of Troy in the new country where the misfortune has taken them. The pronoun is added in encyclic under the poem, vos met, ante rebus, to express with more intensity the yourselves

Rebus sic stantibus

Things being like this. It has causality force.

Recedant vetera, nova sint omnia

Back, the old, everything be renovated. Words of St. Thomas Aquinas in the eucharistic hymn Sacris solemis juncta sint gaudia, he sings in the exposure of the Blessed Sacrament and which write as their declaration the more exalted modernists .

Recipio me ex timore

I get over the fear.

Recordare nec pertimueris

Remember and do not fear.

Rectam viam

On the good way.

Redde Caesari, quae sunt Caesaris, et quae sunt Dei, Deo

Give to the Caesar what is the Caesar, and to God what is of God.

Redde rationem

Account for and give reasons for your manner of behaving.

Reddet unicuique secundum operam ejus

Compensate each of them according to their works. Phrase taken from Saint Matthew the Evangelist 16.27.

Redeamus ad rem

Let get back to the issue. It is used when it is intended to suddenly interrupt an irritating digression.

Redemptio ab hostibus

Redemption of the enemies. The one who redeemed or rescued through money payment a prisoner or roman citizen obtained the mancipium over him, while he did not pay the rescue payment. Pampaloni shows that in every texts of the Code or the Digest referring to this relation, the indication of the causa mancipii was replaced by the idea of a kind of pledge or ius retentionis (retention right)

Redolet Virgilium

Smells to Vigilious. Classical Latin phrase indicating that a writing from a certain author smells or reminds the style of a certain classical author.



Regnum (omne) in seipsum divisum, desolabitur

Every kingdom divided in itself, is destroyed. Words of Jesus Christ generally used to show that the division of any power or hierarchy causes the destruction of the State permitting it.

Regnum coelorum vim patitur et violenti rapiunt illud

The kingdom of God suffers strength and the ones who make violence snatch it. Sentence of Saint Matthew the Evangelist 11.12, frequently used to appreciate the need to undertake the difficulties included in the exercise of merit to reach God’s kingdom.

Rei pretium

The value of a thing, to assess.

Rei publicae

Of the public ventures, of the State.


Relicta non bene parmula

Abandoning badly his shield, that is, escaping. Words of Quintus Horiatis Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) in his Ode II who says to his friend Pompey Varo: "with you I have seen Filip and the fugitives who quickly escaped, abandoning their shield". Before Horace, Archilochus, Alcaeus and Anacreon had already done such confidences. These words are ironically used to the ones who run away from the enemy.


His estate

Rem acu tetigisti

You have touched the issue with a needle. It is used to express that the person to whom is talked to has perfectly understood the issue. Equivalent to the Spanish phrase: You have put the finger in the wound.

Rem cum re

One thing with another, join combining.

Rem patriam

His estate, his treasury.

Rem rei

One thing to another.

Rem rei, rem cum re

One thing with respect to another, or with another.

Removere omnia quae obstant

Remove all the obstacles.

Requiescat in pace

Rest in peace. Words sung in the officiate of deceased and which are frequently engraved on the sepulchral slab and the obituaries, its abbreviation being R. I. P.

Rerum Deus tenax vigor

The hymn that the Roman church uses every day at none. It is created in a dimeter iambric poem, and even though it is short it seems that its author, St. Ambrose , put all his soul therein. It has a great biblical color and breaths a kind of soft melancholy and nostalgia of the sky. Fortunately, the renaissance proofreaders did not touch it.

Rerum Novarum

Of the new things. First words used as title of the Encyclic De conditione opificum (about the condition of the workers), published by the Pope Leon XIII, on May 15, 1891.

Res agitur tua paries cum proximus ardet

It is about your own thing when the wall of your neighbor’s house burns. Hex Latin meter by which it is expressed that the tragedies of our neighbors shall concern and affect us due to their proximity.

Res angusta domi

Scarce resources at home. According to Juvenal (S tira III) scarcity at home many times prevents the honorable man from breaking through the society.

Res de re praedicari

This logical maxim indicates that preaching should refer to the same order, it would not be lawful to go from the pure representation to the represented reality, or vice versa.

Res difficilis atque omnium difficillima

Difficult or rather too difficult thing.

Res et sacramentum

Scholastic theologian generally distinguish in sacraments three elements referred to as: sacramentum tantum, res tantum and res et sacramentum. From the assumption by all accepted, that any sacrament is a symbol or signal, they distinguish between the symbol and the signified thing; what only indicates, is named sacramentum tantum (only symbol) what is only meaning, res tantum (signified things and not symbol); what signifies and is a meaning, res et sacramentum (signified things and symbol that signifies).

Res flagitatur a me

I am asked one thing.

Res judicata pro veritate accipitur

Res judicata matter is accepted as truth. It is also generally said: Res judicata pro veritate habetur (res judicata thing is considered as truth ). Legal aphorism of Ulpianus in the Digest. According to this legal postulate what is definitely formally decided, should not be analyzed.

Res judicata pro veritate habetur

Res judicata thing is considered as truth. This roman law postulate applied to other legislations by virtue of which what is finally decided is unable to be destroyed with the exception of very few cases where an appeal for cassation progresses and it is upheld by virtue of Civil and Criminal law provisions.

Res militaris

The art of war.

Res novare

To do a revolution.

Res nullius

Of nobody, what belongs to nobody, what is ownership of nobody. The land is never considered as res nullius, as a thing without owner.

Res nullius fit primi occupantis

What belongs to nobody is owned by the first occupier. According to this legal rule, are obtained through tenure those properties which are obtained due to their nature and have no owner, such as hidden treasuries, abandoned personal property and the animals which can be hunted or fished.

Res perit domino suo

The thing is lost for its owner. According to this roman law rule accepted by all legislations, damage resulting from the sold thing is borne by the owner of the thing when said damage is caused by force majure.

Res sacra miser

The miserable is a holy thing. This expression indicates the respect to be felt for the miserable.

Res tua agitur

It is about your issue. It refers to one concerns or is convenient to us.

Responde mihi quantas habeo iniquitates

Answer (and tell me) how many inequities I have. Taken from the book of Job.

Restitutio in integrum

Complete restitution. Reintegration of a minor or another privileged person to all his actions and rights.

Risum Teneatis amici?

Could you avoid you laugh, friends? Portion of a poem of Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) in Poetic Art or Epistle to the Pisos, cited when talking nonsense.

Risus abundat in ore stultorum

Laugh is plenty in the mouths (lips) of the foolish. Popular ancient Latin maxim.

Roma locuta, causa finita

Rome has talked, the cause has ended.