Pace tua

With your consent.

Paci medium se offert

It is offered as mediator for the peace

Pacta adjecta

Additional agreements. Additional agreements have the characteristic of not being principal or independent conventions, but accessory or secondary agreements to an obligation they are added to or which they amend.

Pacta Conventa

Additional agreements. Additional agreements have the characteristic of not being principal or independent agreements, but additional or secondary agreements to an obligation they are added to or which they amend. According to this obligation, the amendment consisted in aggravating the obligation, increasing it or making it more bearable, reducing it. Thus, these agreements were ad augendam or ad minuendam obligationem (in order to increase or reduce the obligation) and, depending on their addition to the obligation taking place before or at the time it was acquired or after this and separately, it was said they were added in continenti or ex intervallo. At first, no agreements were made, since the legis actiones’ system (legal actions) could not originate an action, as this could only arise from the contract, nor an exception, as at that time, exceptions did not exist. But this disappeared with the introduction of the formulary procedure, because in 670 in Rome, the exceptio pacti was granted, whether they were of one class or the other and whatever the contract they were added to. The subsequent process consisted in allowing them, through case law, to produce effects whenever they were added in continenti, because, in that case, they were part of the contract and fulfillment could be enforced by virtue of the contact itself. At first, such effect was limited to those agreements that were added in continenti to bonafide contracts; but, at Julio Paulo ( ¨ - 235 a.C.) and Ulpian’s time(170-223) this was also permitted for additions to strict performance contracts, what leaves no doubts regarding ad minuendam agreements, and what is true for ad augendam obligationem agreements due to the general terms used by Paulo (at least for those added to oral contracts: quia pacta incontinenti facta stipulationi inesse videntur), with the only exception that the increase involves the establishment of interests or any other similar increase concerning money loans. Main accessory agreements: They can be as numerous as the combinations suggested by the interests of the parties can be. The main ones are: 1) Pacta de Retrovendendo (resale agreement) by means of which the seller reserves the right to recover the property sold, within a certain term and for the same price or another one, which can remain unspecified until this takes place. 2) Pacta de retroemendo, by means of which the purchaser reserves the right to oblige the seller to reacquire the property within a certain term and for a specified or unspecified price. 3) Pacta protimeseos (repurchase agreement) by means of which it is agreed that if the purchaser sells the property he has just bought, the seller will have preference to acquire in the same conditions (preemptive right). 4) Pacta addictio in diem (provisional sale), by means of which the seller reserves the right, until a certain date, to sell the same property to another person that makes a better offer, thus considering the first sale as never preformed. 5) Pacta de non alienando (agreement not to sell), by means of which the purchaser of property binds himself not to transfer the things neither in whole nor in part, or to a certain person. Any transfer performed against the agreed upon terms is not null, but may give rise to an action (actio venditi or praescriptis verbis) for damages and interests against the seller. 6) Pacta reservatae hypotecae (agreement of mortgage reserve), by means of which the seller reserves the right to take a mortgage over the property sold as a guarantee for the payment of the amount that may be owed. It grants priority over any other mortgage that may be given by the purchaser. 7) Pacta reservati dominii (agreement on reservation of title) by means of which the seller reserves title to the property sold until payment of the price. It does not affect the sale’s efficiency, but it places the risks and dangers of the property with the purchaser and making clear that no credit is granted to him; that is, title’s transfer remains pending (transferring, for the moment, the sole possession or precarious possession) interim the price is not satisfied; being this useful to prove that the price was not satisfied until evidence to the contrary is presented. 8) Pacta de non prestada evicciones, by means of which this natural effect of the sale contract is abolished, releasing the seller form any liabilities, within the agreed upon limits, except in case of fraud.The agreements listed until now are the ones added to the sale contract and, except the one indicated under number 2), they are for the benefit the purchaser. The following, are applied to diverse contracts. 9) Agreement allowing for rescission in case of breach of contract by means of which one of the parties is vested with the authority to terminate the contract if the other does not perform his obligations within a certain term. It can be added to all the contracts, except to the pledge; but it is specifically used for sale, establishing it for the benefit of the seller should the purchaser not pay the price within the term agreed upon. It may be stated as a condition precedent or subsequent, being the latter the presumption in case of doubt. The party benefiting from it may opt to request the termination or enforce the performance of the contract. 10) Pacta displicentiae, according to an inadequate technical term used by modern authors (repentance agreement), by means of which both parties or one of them reserve(s) the right to freely break the contract, within a certain term or in perpetuum; but if none of this has been expressed, the sixty-day term will apply, as established under a passage of the Digest. 11) Antichretic agreement, by means of which the debtor grants the use or enjoyment of the property to the creditor instead of paying interests.

Pacta legitima

Legitimate agreements

Pacta non nuda, que producían acción, y que equivalían a verdaderos contratos convencionales, si bien no se les dio el nombre de contratos para distinguirlos de los que anteriormente habían recibido este nombre, conservándose la denominación de pact

Pacta nuda, (esto es, desnudos de acción), que sólo producían excepción.

Pacta pretoria

Pretorial agreements. Those to which the praetor granted a personal action in factum. Some of them were then elevated to contracts by granting them civil actions in jus; but others remained as agreements with personal action in factum. The number of those that must be included in this category is under discussion. Disregarding precarious possession (by means of which free use of property is granted as long as the grantor so wishes) those commonly mentioned by the authors are: 1) Pactum de jure jurando extrajudiciati (oath agreement) by means of which two or more people agree to submit an issue between them to the oath given by one of them. Carlos Gustavo Maynz (1812-1882) does not consider it an agreement, arguing that a simple convention does not produce a legal effect; but Girard, taking into account that once the agreement is accepted and the oath is given, the praetor ratifies its effects (with the purpose of punishing the lack of faith rather than making the agreement binding) not only with an exception, but also with an action, gives it that place. 2) Constitutum, consituta pecunia agreement, which should not be confused with the constitutum possessorium. The importance of the agreement in question requires special attention. It consists in the agreement by means of which a date is fixed in order to fulfill a preexisting obligation (it is the case, thus, of an Agreement ex intervallo) through payment of a sum of money (pecunia, hence its name) and, afterwards, the fulfillment of an obligation of another kind. Valery thinks that the constituta pecunia action (the one that gave rise to this agreement) goes back to the XII Tables (that is, that it would be civil), this agreement appearing in the convention the debtor could execute with the creditor within that 60-day term between the manus injectio and his death or trans Tiberim sale, but this appreciation is, as Girard observes, unacceptable, due to the praetorial character of the action, fully declared in the texts, as there is no record of any civil action becoming praetorial. According to Gerard himself, with whom Maynz agrees, the existence of the constituta pecunia action is proved by Cicero, the second author adding that there are no doubts about its existence during Labeon’s time.

Pacta sunt servanda

Agreements must be observed. Legal rule that teaches that the terms agreed upon by the parties, whether orally or in writing, must be strictly kept and fulfilled.


Pactum vestrum cum inferno non stabit

Your pact with hell, do not remain. Phrase taken from Isahiah, the prophet 28,18 used to express that no illegal convention or conspiracy can last.


From the Greek, country, child and filos, friendship. Person interested in children’s physical and moral welfare.

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas, regumque turres

The pale death knocks in the same way the door of the poor’s hut and the kings’ palaces. Words by Horace used to remind that all humans are equal before death.

Palmam accipere

To get the victory or advantage

Panem angelorum manducavit homo

The man ate the angels’ bread. Taken from Saint John, the Evangelist 6,31

Panem de coelo dedit eis manducare

He gave them the heaven’s bread to eat. Phrase taken from Saint John 6,91.

Panem et circenses

Circus’ bread and games. Taken from Decius Junius Juvenalis X Satires (58-138). These were the masses’ wishes during Ancient Rome’s decadence. It corresponds to the Spanish bread and bull.

Panis egentium vita pauperum est

People in need’s bread is the poor’s life. Phrase taken from the book of Ecclesiastic 34,25, which indicates the poor’s need of his necessary sustenance.

Panis quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mudi salute

The bread I will give you is my own flesh, for the world’s salvation. Taken from Saint John 6,52

Par est

It is convenient.

Par oneri ferendo

Apt to carry the load.

Par sumalicui, alicuius (o) cum aliquo

I am equal to someone

Para evitar esta consecuencia se admitió el llamado derecho de postliminio (jus postliminii), en virtud del cual el ciudadano romano que hubiere sido hecho prisionero del enemigo (en paz o en guerra) y que era puesto en libertad por éste o lograba evadi


From the Greek. pará, to one side and of pherné, dowry. Property taken to the marriage by the woman in addition to the dowry and acquired by her during the marriage by onerous transfer, such as succession or gift.

Parce mihi nihil sunt enim dies mei

Forgive me, as my days are nothing. Phrase taken from the book of Job 7,16, which gave rise to many expressions, all of them reflecting the idea of prescription and insignificance of human things.

Parcere personis dicere de vitiis

To disregard persons and speak about the vices. Phrase taken from Epigrams of Marcus Valerius Marcialis (40-104) which must be interpreted in the sense of hating crime and feeling sympathy for the offender.

Parcere subjectis et debelare superbos

To forgive the defeated and overcome the arrogant. Words of Virgilius in the Aeneida VI that summarise Roman politics, which intended to combine the harshness of the strong’s right with human mercy.

Pares inter se

Equal each other.

Pars illarum erit in stagno ardenti igne

Their part consists in a lake of burning fire. Phrase taken from Revelations 21,8, frequently used by orators and apologists to enhance the intensity of condemned’s torments

Participatum systema

Latin name given to the mild chord system, as each of its sounds is formed by various sounds of the mathematical scale, which participate in the formation of this system, spreading in its diverse degrees.

Participes enim Christi effecti sumus

We have been made, in fact, participants of Christ. Phrase taken from Saint Paul in Hebrew 3,14.

Partim ex nobis timidi sunt

Part of us is timid.

Parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus

Forests will give birth and a ridiculous mouse will be born. Words of Horace in the Art of Poetry while speaking about redundant prefaces commencing works of poor value. The forests’ labor is said to reflect a trivial and ridiculous thing that comes instead of another that was expected to be large and important.

Parum loqui multa facere

Speak little and do a lot. Latin proverb that recommends moderate words and abundance of facts.

Parva magnis

Small things with large things.

Parva pecunia

Small amount of money

Parvo momento antecedere

Pass by a short distance.

Parvuli ejus petierunt panem et non erat qui frangeret eis

Their children asked for bread and there was nobody to cut it. Phrase taken from prophet Jeremy, which reflects the misery reached by people God abandoned, as was the Jewish of their apostatize.

Parvulus enim natus est nobis et filius datus

A child was born for us and we were provided with a son. Words taken from prophet Isahiah 9,16, which orators and apologists use to praise the benefit of the Son of God’s Redemption

Paterna rura bobus exercet suis

He farms his father’s lands with his own dumbs. Horace’s verse that refers to patriarchal habits.

Patiens quia aeternus

He is patient because he is eternal. Words taken from Saint Agustine (354-430) while admiring God’s unchanging patience before Men’s disorders and murders

Patientia autem opus perfectum habet

Patience has its perfect work. Words taken from a letter written by Apostle James 1,4 which apologists use to praise the usefulness and need of patience.

Patientia lenietur princeps et lingua mollis confinget duritiam

The sovereign is placated with patience, and the smooth tongue destroys harshness. Phrase from the book of Proverbs 25,15, famous for its application by Saint Gregory while turning to the emperor with dignity and sweetness.

Patientiam habe in me et omnia reddam tibi

Be patient and rely on me, and I will return you everything. Words of Saint Mathew18,26, which Bossuet, Massillon, Flechier, Segur and Dupanloup have used repeteadly these days to increase confidence in divine promises.

Patrius sermo

Mother tongue.

Patrum nostrorum memoria

At our ancestor’s time.

Paucis ante diebus

A few days ago.

Paucis diebus post

A few days later.

Paucorum annorum

Of a few years.

Paulo ante mediam noctem

Shortly before midnight.

Paulum minus

A little less.

Pauper ubique jacet

The poor is depressed everywhere. Words of Ovid, whose signification is perfectly clear.

Pauperes evangelizantur

The poor are evangelized. Words of Christ, cited by the Evangelists, which indicate as one of the prodigies of the new era of grace the fact that the poor could be transmitted the truths of the Gospel. Catholic writers and apologists cite this expression to reflect that the more prejudiced classes of society have the right to be taught Jesuschrist’s faith doctrines and that denying them this knowledge goes against law and reason.

Paupertas impulit audax

Poverty that dares to do everything has driven me. Words of Horace, which he used to express the cause that led him to write verses (ut versus facerem), and which is usually cited to indicate that need is the most powerful sting good men have to motivate and reach difficult goals.

Peccata eorum non memorabor amplius

I will never remember his sins. Words by prophet Jeremy 31,34, usually used in holy oratory and apologetics to praise God’s infinite compassion towards the sinner.

Peccata mea

For my sins, my faults or to punish them.

Peccata minuta

Error, offense or minor vice. This expression is commonly used with a familiar sense to designate a minor fault, mistake or error. Even when Latin words are in the plural, they are applied to a fact in the singular, thus, it is said: “What I have done with this man is peccata minuta in comparison with what others have done.”

Peccata tua elemosynis redime

Redeem your sins by paying alms. Phrase of Daniel 4,24 by means of which the Church praises the efficiency of alms to reach the forgiveness of sins.

Peccato peccavit Jerusalem, propterea instabilis facta est

Jerusalem committed a (serious) sin and, for that reason, it became changeable. Phrase from prophet Jeremy’s Trenos 1,8, by means of which sinner’s changeability and fickleness are shown as direct effects of sin.

Peccator centum annorum maledictus erit

The sinner will be damned for one hundred years. Phrase of prophet Isahiah 65,20 used to show the fact that when the old man sins he is much more guilty than the young one, for his life experience should prevent him from any spiritual ruin. Jacobo Benigno Bossuet (1627-1704) showed one of his more noble gestures of eloquence when applying this text to one of his sermons given before Louis XIV.

Peccatum et blasphemia remittetur, spiritus blasphemiae non remittetur

Sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven; the spirit of blasphemy shall not. Phrase taken form the Gospel according to Saint Mathew 12,31, by means of which the deeply-rooted spirit or habit of blaspheming is expressly condemned. Saint Basil (329-379) wrote a beautiful homily about this text.

Pecuniae obediunt omnia

Everything obeys to money. Phrase taken from the book of Ecclesiastic 10,13 used as a praise to reflect the material efficiency of money in social relations.

Pecuniam alicui

To lend money to someone.

Pecuniam de aerario

The money from the public treasure.

Pecuniam ex aerario

Money from the public treasure.

Pecuniam tuam non dabis ad usuram

You will not give money for usurious gain. Phrase taken from the Levitic 25,37 that moralists and orthodox economists usually use to condemn usurious loans, based on the authority of the Holy Scriptures.

Pecus (genitivo: pecoris)

Livestock, crowd.

Pecus (genitivo: pecudis)

Head of cattle, stupid, fool.

Pellem pro pelle, cuncta pro anima

Skin for skin, everything for the soul. Phrase from the scriptures, Job 2,4 usually used to increase the equity that must be informed to commutative justice. It is mostly substituted by the phrase: eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth.

Pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore

Pending from the narrator’s words. Phrase taken from the Aeneid by Vigilius, used to express Dido’s anxiety when listening to Aeneas’ story about Troy’s siege and fall.

Penes te est?

Are you the owner of yourself?

Pensi non habere

Not to pay attention to something.

Per aversam portam

Through the opposite door.

Per causam

On the pretext of.

Per causam exercendorum remigum

On the pretext of training the rowers.

Per deos

For the gods.

Per me reges regnant, et legum conditores justa decernunt

Kings reign because of me and legislators decree what is fair. Words adjudicated to Divine Wisdom by Salomon in his Proverbs.

Per que peccat quis per haec et torquetur

You are tormented in the same way you sin. Maxim taken from the Book of Wisdom, which warns that any fault or sin carries in itself a torment or penance.

Per transit benefaciendo

He did good. Expression applied to Jesuschrist and which comes from Saint Peter’s words to Cornelius the centurion, referring to our Redeemer

Percusserit (qui) patrem aut matrem, morte moriatur

Those who hit their father or mother, die (badly). Phrase taken from the Exodus 21,15 used to condemn outrage on parents.

Percussit aquas et divisae sunt

He hit the waters and they got divided. Biblical phrase taken from the IV book of the Kings 2,14 used to describe God’s miracle when ordering Moses to hit the waters of the Red Sea with his stick in order that this could create a dry way and the Israelites could cross it safe and sound.

Percutiam pastorem et dispergentur oves

The shepherd will be hurt and the bees will disperse. Phrase taken from Zachary 13,17 which refers to Christ’s imprisonment in the garden of Gethsemane and the subsequent dispersion of his disciples.

Percutiat te Deus egestate, febri et frigore

God hurt you with necessity, fever and cold. Words of Deuteronomy 28,22 used to appreciate the punishments applied by God to afflict apostate people.

Pereant, ut Sisara, omnes inimici tui

Perish all your enemies like Sisara. Phrase taken the book of Judges 5,10, usually applied to the destruction of the enemies who are, at the same time, unfair aggressors.

Pereat dies in qua natus sum, et nox in qua dictum est: nascatur homo

Perish the day I was born and the night it was said: the man must be born. Words from the book of Job 3,3, which reveal the most bitter pessimism and that must not be taken literally, as commentators and interpreters of the Holy Scriptures explain and clarify sufficiently the sense in which they must be taken.

Perfecta caritas foras mittit timorem

Perfect charity eliminates fear. Phrase take from Saint John Evangelist 1,4, used to increase the value of charity, which, in itself, is enough to avoid any fear or distrust.

Periculosum semper putavi lucrum

I have always thought wealth was dangerous.

Periculum mora

Danger is in the delay.

Permanebimus in peccato ut gratia abondet?

We will remain in sin in order that grace abounds. This is a question taken from a Saint Paul’s letter to the Romans 6,2 the Protestants made famous by removing the question mark, what disfigures in whole the apostle’s intention of indicating that remaining in sin and request grace at the same time, involves temerity or vain presumption

Permittere me mortuum sepelire patrem

Let me bury mi dead father. Phrase taken from the Gospel according to Saint Mathew 8,11, often used by religious orders’ advocates and apologists to appreciate the way Christ requires promptness and speed in performance to those who have vocation to follow gospel’s advices, that is not compatible neither with the important duty, nor with the brevity of the action required to bury one’s own father’s body.

Pero el soberano, legítimo desde su instauración en la sociedad política que gobierna, o purificado por la prescripción o el ascenso de los súbditos, puede no manifestarse en todo momento dentro del marco de la virtud o traspasar límites que el dere

Perpetuas vías

Ways without interruption.

Pes tuus te scandalizat, amputa illum

Should your foot scandalize you, then cut it. Phrase taken from Saint Mark the Evangelist 9,44, used by Catholic orators and apologists to praise the convenience of sacrificing any element, even a part of our body, in order to ensure eternal salvation.

Pestilentes dissipant civitatem; sapientes, vero avertunt furorem

Plague victims destroy the city, but the wise put fury away. Phrase taken from the book of Proverbs 29,8, which equals to the antithesis between the fool and the wise, highlighting the destructive influence of the first and the healthy and efficient influence of the second one in city life and social action.

Petrus in cunctis

Peter in everything. Used to give a name to somebody who pretends to know a lot of things at the same time but does not have solid knowledge of any of them.

Philosophia nos artem bene vivendi docet

Philosophy teaches us the art of welfare.

Phocion fuit pauper, cum ditissimus esse posset

Focion was poor, even when he could have been rich.

Pietas erga parentes

Children’s love towards their parents.

Pietas, autem, ad omnia utilis est

Mercy is useful for everything. Phrase taken from the first letter of Saint Paul to Timothy 4,8, usually used by apologists and orators to praise the need and usefulness of merciful acts.


Tyre’s King in Phoenicia, famous for his unhappy romance with the Trojan’s prince Aeneas.


From the Greek pyr, fire and hexis, state. Essential fever or that is not a symptom of a local disease.

Plaudebant in re ficta

They clapped at a fictitious fact.

Plenus venter non studet libenter

A full stomach does not study willingly. Said to mean that after a plentiful food, you feel laziness and you have no will to study or work seriously. The origin of this Latin expression comes from the Flos Medicinae sive Ars Sanitatis of the School of Salerno, in the verse stating: Inanis venter non audit verba Libenter (an empty stomach does not hear words gladly).

Pluris, minoris

In more or less.

Poculis labra

The lips of a cup.

Poenas dare alicui

To suffer a punishment that causes pleasure to someone.

Poenas ob delictum expetunt

They require punishment for the crime.

Poma agrestia

Fruits of the fields.

Pompam funeris ire

To go to the funeral.


Pontiff. Priest-magistrate who presided over the religious rites and ceremonies of Ancient Rome. The school of pontiffs founded by Numa Pompilio (714-671 b.C.) and composed, at first, by four members, all of them patricians; then increased to fifteen. According to Titus Livio (59 b.C.-17 a.C.) the king was always the maximum priest and carried out most of the priestly duties. For Christians, he is the supreme prelate of the Catholic Church.

Populum in tribus tres

To the town in three flocks.

Por otra parte, el texto de Tito Livio (59 a.C.-17 d.C.) sólo prueba que se había concedido el derecho de provocación a los plebeyos, derecho que primitivamente no tuvieron, y aun la opinión de Sexto Pompeyo Festo (para quien el dictador no estaba som

Posterum diem

A last day.


Potestas (non est enim) nisi a Deo

Every power derives from God. Phrase taken from Saint Paul to the Romans 13,1 ethical writers usually use to prove the origin of power in general terms

Potius aliquid malle quam

To prefer something (a certain thing) instead of something else.

Praeda ingenti compos exercitus

Army that has taken a large booty.


The booty


Publication, proclamation.

Praefecti jure dicundo

Prefects nominated by law. Those who were designated by the praetor as his representatives to administer justice in certain Italian cities, which, for this reason, were designated prefectures.

Praefecti jure dicundo decurionum decreto ex lege petronia

Prefects to administer justice named by decree by Petronian law. They were two (duoviri) and they were named by the municipal Senate, by virtue of the Lex Petronia municipalis, when for any reason the supreme Municipal magistrates had not been elected (II viri or IV viri jure dicundo) on time to assume their positions on January 1, in order to carry out the municipal administration until this took place


Prefect. Among Romans, title of many military and civil authorities.

Praefectus municipii

Municipal prefect. In the same way as when both Roman consuls abandoned the city they had to name a praefectus urbi, in the municipalities (organised by the Roman model), when the II viri or IV viri were absent, the last one to leave had to name a prefect or a substitute, who would govern until one of them returned. This prefect had to be chosen out of the decurions who were of a certain age (35 pursuant to the Lex Salpensa).

Praefectus urbi (o) urbis

City prefect; called Custos urbi at the beginning. At monarchy’s time it was an auxiliary of the king in the administrative body with powers assigned by the monarch. At the Republic’s time, it retained its capacity as vicar of the supreme authority during the latter’s absence in the city. The praefectus urbi retains his capacity and even increased its importance since Constantine’s time. There was one in Rome and another one in Constantinople.


Pretrial. In a broad sense, all pretrial matters, both civil and criminal, that intend to and must be solved before the trial, about any issue. In this sense, civil exceptions and accessory articles on the criminal area are genuine pretrial matters. But in a proper and strict sense, pretrial matters constitute the essence of criminal procedure, and they are the civil or administrative matters which sometimes arise during the procedure and that must be solved separately or by a different authority from the one that handles the main matter and always before it, because they defend more or less discreetly from these matters the legal classification of the justifiable fact

Praelatus nullius

Prelade that has jurisdiction over a territory which does not belong to any diocese.

Praemissis praemittendis

All requirements having been fulfilled. In substance, this is the meaning.

Praemonitus, praemunitus

Cautious man. Our phrase refers to this term: The informed derive from the well informed, having a signification similar to the Latin phrase.

Praescriptis verbis

Praesente cadavere

Bodily present

Praestat invidos habere quam misericordiam

It is better to cause envy rather than mercy. It is generally said, it is better envy than mercy.

Praetoria potestas

Praetorial power.


Preceptiva literaria

This is the name used to designate the collection of rules and precepts that form what, in a very broad sense, may be designated as literary canon.


The pleadings.

Pridem dudum

A lot of time.

Prima face

The first light.

Primum est esse quam operari

First be and then act. A better way to express this is: Prius est esse quam operari.

Primum frigidum

Pure or absolute cold. Elementary substance according to Parmenide’s(540-450 b.C.) doctrine.

Primum movile

The first motive. In ancient astronomical systems it was called primum movile, the first mobile heaven, the heaven (solid or fluid circle, place of heavenly bodies), immediate to the celestial (still), which in its movement from the East to the West carried all the inferior heavens, thus being the cause of the day movement of heavenly bodies.

Primum oratoris officium…

The first duty of the orator...

Primum vivere, deinde philosophari

First live, then philosophize. The real author of this maxim is unknown. Some attribute it to Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), however, it is older. It is used ironically to refer to those who are not good at earning a living and, are, instead, keen on discussing. It is also referred to as: primo vivere, deinde philosophari.

Primus in orbe deos fecit timor, arduus coelo

Primus inter pares

The first among his fellow men or peers.

Principiis obsta sero medicina paratur

Ovid’s poem in his Remedia Amoris applied both in a proper and figurative sense to express that soul’s passions, as well as diseases, must be defeated from the beginning to avoid their worsening in a way that any medicine results unable to handle or cure it.


Principle. Writers do not agree concerning legal general principles: for some of them they arise from Natural Law; while for others they derive from legal science’s propositions. Gen considers as such, the universal rules reason speculates, generalizing by means of the abstraction of particular solutions obtained from social justice and equity and considering the nature of positive things, rules that will constitute some kind of Universal Law, general because of its nature and subsidiary because of its function, which replace the gaps in formal sources of law. Lambert is not far from this concept, who intends to induce, through comparative law, the ordinary rules of different groups of people. Among Spanish authors, Saches Roman considers legal axioms or maxims compiled in ancient compilations (Digest, Decretales, Partidas, etc.), as general principles of law and Buron states they are reason dictates admitted by the legislator as an immediate basis for his regulations and which contain his capital thinking.



Prior in tempore

First in time.

Priore aestate

During the preceding summer.

Prius (genitive: prioris)


Prius in orbe deos fecit timor

Pro comperto habeo

For sure.

Pro eo ut, pro eo ac

As long as.

Pro explorato habere

Being certain that.

Pro nihilo

In nothing.

Pro patria mori

To die in defense of the country.

Pro se quisque

Each one separately.

Proam ad

Place the bow to.


To indict, indictment: order by virtue of which the examining judge orders the indictment of a person. It may be with imprisonment or provisional release, and may or may not involve solitary confinement. Indictments must be requested.


Procedure. Way of proceeding in justice. This word derives from the Latin verb procedo, which, at the same time, is comprised of two words: pro, which means in front of, and cedo, which means “to march.” Group of acts which result essential to investigate about the commission of a wrongful act and determine the participation and responsibility of the people that may have participated in it. The procedure includes the whole set of acts performed by the examining judge (summary) as well as those ordered by the higher Cout (docket) during the plenary period, and also being able to be included those ones created by the filing of appeals the law grants against judgments. The process as a whole reflects the action of marching forward. Law is granted for life; in which men reach their goals by applying the means granted to them. In this sense, it can be stated that they are legal proceedings used to pass laws, ensure their enforcement, apply them at trial and even for the purposes of peaceful compliance with the Law, such as the execution of an agreement or execution of a will.

Procul negotiis

Far from business. These words by Horace are usually cited to express, as this poet did, that distance with business is a requirement in order to have a happy life. They belong to Ode II of the book of Epodon.

Prolem sine matre creatam

Offspring with no mother created. End of one of Ovid’s verses (Metamorphoses II). It is applied to families with no ancestors, to works created without any model and to men with no grandparents.


Enactment. Formal publication of a law in order to make it public.

Pronus ad iram

Prone to rage.

Propter iniurias

About injustices.

Propter necessitatem illicitum efficitur licitum

In case of need what is unlawful becomes lawful. Rule of canonic law that is contained and explained in the Decretals.

Propter nuptias

Gifts. Those made by parents or legal representatives to their descendents or wards, or by the contracting parties to each other, before execution and because of marriage.

Propter usum fructum

With usufructuary right.

Provocatio ad populum

Prudentium est mutare consilium

Wise people change their advice.

Prudentium responsa

Wise people’s answer. Those given by Roman legal advisers to those clients who consulted them about a legal matter.


State owned property.

Puer bene sibi fidens

Conceited child.

Puer pulsus

The battered child.

Pulchre, bene recte

Good, very good, perfectly.

Pulsate et aperietur vobis

Call and they will open. Words said by Christ applicable in various ways, or to mean that we must do something from our position if we want to get what we request to God, or what we generally wish.

Pulvis et umbra sumus

We are dust and shadow. Verse by Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b. C) in the Diffugere nives Ode which indicates how fragile and perishable human nature is.


Punishment to criminal acts. Public power’s authority to punish unlawful acts and offenses imposing the corresponding punishment upon the offenders.