Iam dudum te exspectamus

We have been waiting for you some time.

Ibi deficit orbis

Here the world ends. Words that according to the mythological tradition were engraved on the rocks which the fable calls Hercules columns.

Id aetatis

Of that age.

Id est

This is, that is to say.

Id tempore

In this time.

Idem atque

The same way that.

Ignari discant, ament meminisse periti

Learn the ignorants, keep in mind the learned. Motto that fits very well on the cover of a didactical work, as shown by the evidenced meaning.

Ignorantia facit excusat

The ignorance of the fact exempts the blame. It implies that a criminal fact is not so when it was committed being ignorant of the surrounding circumstances.

Ignorantia non excusat legem

Ignorance does not exempt the fulfillment of the law. Law binds everybody, the ones who know it and the ones who do not know it.

Illa fuit praesto natali suo ipse die

She met there on the day of her anniversary precisely.

Imitatores servum pecus

Imitators, herd of serfs. Words used by Horace to objurgate the imitators.

Impavidum ferient ruinae

Ruins will bury the fearless. Strong image with which Horace in his Ode III draws the persistence of the strong and just man to whom the collapsing orb cannot inject dread.

Impedio ne frater proficiscar

I prevent my brother to leave.

Imperare sibi maximum est imperium

To control oneself is the highest signiory.

Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique

Wealth Esther serves or control the one who possess it. Phrase with which Horace refers to the rich rich and the poor rich.

Imperat frumentum exercitui

Caesar imposes the Gallic wheat as taxation for his army.

Imperitia culpae adnumerantur

Incompetence is considered as fault. It expresses that ignorance is for the one who possesses it a cause of fault.


The power.

Imperium flagitio acquisitum, nemo umquam bonis artibus exercuit

The power obtained through crime was never exercised in a good manner. Words of Tacitus which deny a healthy effectiveness to the power badly obtained.

Impetrare ne

Reach that no.

Impetrare ut

Reach that.

Impetum ferre

Bear the assault.

Impetum hostium

The violence of the enemy.

Impetum modo ferre non potuerunt

They could not even bear the assault.

Impossibilium nulla obligatio

Nobody is obliged to the impossible. Legal aphorism, owed to the jurist Juvencio Celso ( I century B.C.) and which turned into a vernacular proverb synonym of: Ad impossibile nemo tenetur (Nobody is obliged to the impossible).

Impotentia excusat legem

Impotence excuses the law. Legal aphorism by which the law excuses specific act of disabled individuals, such as prisoners, idiots, insane, etc. to whom their state prevents them from complying with it.

Impressionem dare

Launch an attack.

Improbe Neptunum accusat qui naufragium iterum fecit

The one who shipwrecks for a second time unfairly blames the sea. Latin proverb which expresses that the one who exposed to a risk should not complain for collapsing to it.

Improbis aliena virtus semper formidolosa est

The virtue of the good was always fearsome for the bad. The historian Caius Salustius Crispus (86-34 B.C.) shows with this sentence the great force of virtue to which the ones who behave bad fear.

In acceptum referre

Add to the income chapter.

In aeternum

For ever. In order to live for ever happy and independent the had to loosen in aeternum from the passions controlling him.

In albis

In blank. One being kept in albis.

In aliqua re agenda

For the performance of something.

In aliquem

Against someone.

In aliquem locum

To somewhere.

In anima vili

A vile being. Latin expression literally used to indicate the experiments done over animals in order to know the properties of chemical or toxic substances absorbed by their bodies. It is also used figuratively.

In antis

Temple having in its front two columns, or tow columns and two antas.

In aperto

In the open air, without defense.

In articulo mortis

At the hour of death.

In austri partibus

In southern regions.

In caelo quies

There is rest in the sky. Latin phrase frequently used in coat of arms.

In capita

By head. When in an intestate succession of a person there appear brothers with nephews, sons of double bond brothers, it is said that the first succeed in capita, and the second in stirpes (in lineage).

In capite

At the front of any work or operation.

In capite coronam habebat

He had a crown over his head.

In carcerem

In prison.

In casto Cereris

The Ceres celebration took place in April for eight days, by the roman ladies, who in order to prepare themselves better avoided drinking wine and had an immaculate continence: in order to show this prudent behavior it was said that these ladies were in pure Cereris.

In corpore adfecto

In an exhausted body.

In diem

Latin expression used in the forensic phrase adictio in diem o adictio a die, referring to the agreement according to which the buyer receives the thing under the condition that the sale be rescinded if within the term the seller finds who gives him more.

In dubio, pro operario

In case of doubt, in favor of the worker.

In dubio, pro reo

In case of doubt, in favor of the accused.

In eo loco

In that place.

In eo loco sunt res nostrae

Our issues are in that condition.

In extenso

In all its extent. It is used as equivalent to the adjectives, literal, extensive, not abbreviated, when dealing with copies, extracts, speeches, etc.

In extremis

In the last moments of existence, in article of death. It refers to the marriages celebrated when one of the contracting parties is in danger of death or near to that.

In face

In phase. Name of the prisons generally existing in monasteries to confine therein the friars or monks guilty of any crime.

In facie Ecclesiae

In the presence of the church. It is used when talking about the marriage ceremony, when it is celebrated in public and with the established ceremonies.

In fieri

Latin expression used to refer to what is pending to be done. Combination of charges in fieri.

In fine

At the end.

In foro medio

In the middle of the market; neutral; impartial.

In globo

In globe, in conjunct.

In gratiam alicuius

To please somebody.

In hoc signo vinces

You will succeed with this symbol. Expression referring to the cross with which this term appeared to the army of Constantine I, the Great; it is generally used referring to a phrase or flag to predict the success of a certain idea.

In hostem equos

Horses against the enemy.

In illa loca

To go to establish in those regions.

In illo tempore

In that time. Latin expression used to refer to another time or some time ago.

In imperium romanum cedere

To pass on to the power of the Romans.

In incerto esse

To be in the insecurity.

In integro mihi res est

I am still the owner of the situation.

In integrum

Totally, in a whole. Latin expression used in the forensic phrase restitutio in integrum, which indicates the reinstatement of a minor or other privileged person to all his actions and rights.

In integrum restitutio

Complete reinstatement. It is included in the Digest with the title De in Integrum Restitutionibus: About complete reinstatements. According to Julio Paulo (roman jurist, opponent and rival of Pompinianus who died in the year 235 of our time), in the Digest: integri restitutio est redintegranda rei vel causae actio (the complete reinstatement will be the action to repair the thing or the cause).

In iudicium venire

Appear before the court.

In jure cessio

Assignment of right. It was a civil way to acquire ownership which was not used in times of Justinian. It was an inorganic litis inorgánica, where the purchaser pretended to exercise a reivindicatio to which the seller or transmitter submitted. Both parties appeared, previously in agreement and before the magistrate the acquirer affirmed that the thing or the slave belonged to him under Quirites right; the magistrate asked the other whether he had to respond or alleged to the contrary; the defendant kept silence and therefore the magistrate granted the property of the thing or the slave to the plaintiff. As it can be observed the in jure cessio applied only in jure (as of right), there being no place for in judicio (at trial) Since the seller or transmitter instead of entangle the cause and exercise the litis contestatio, he assigned his right by keeping silence or accepting (injure cedit).

In litteris versari

To study.

In lucto esse

To be of lute.

In magnis et voluisse sat est

On big things, simply undertaking them is an honor. Poem of Sextus Propertius (s. 50-15 B.C.), which indicates that it is not only success what makes a man big, but the value to undertake it.

In maiorem Dei gloriam o Ad maiores Dei gloriam

To more glory of God.

In malam partem

Interpret unfavorably third parties` actions.

In manu alicuius esse

To be in the power of somebody.

In matrimonium dare

Offer in marriage.

In matrimonium locare

Give in marriage.

In medio stat virtus

Virtue is in the middle. Latin expression used to indicate that all extremes are vicious.

In molere vultus tui vesceris

You will eat the bread with the sweat of your forehead.

In multiloquio non deerit peccatum

In the much talking does not fail the sin.

In naturalibus

Naked, in skin.

In nomine

On behalf.

In obscuro vitam

To live in the dark.

In obvio alicui esse

To find somebody.

In officio manere

To keep faithful.

In ore sunt omnia

Everything is reflected in the expression of the face.

In pace

In peace. Prison, vault, underground prison cell of a cloister, where the ones guilty of a scandal were kept for ever. Similarly, secret place where a person is kept for ever.

In pectore

In the heart, in the mind. Latin expression used in the name: cardenal in pectore, with which the ecclesiastical raised to the cardenalicia dignity but which proclamation and institution the Pope reserves for a later time.

In pectus

In the heart; take on an activity.

In perpetuum

Perpetually; forever.

In petto

Latin expression used in the name: cardinal in petto, synonym of cardinal in pectore.

In poculis

Between cups, that is, drinking. It is used of the ones who try to solve or adjust all the issues or business with the cup in the hand. Latin classics used to say inter pocula.

In populos

In bodies of nation.

In portibus infidelium

I places or countries of unfaithful.

In primis

Above all.

In promptu

It is applied to the things that are at hand or are done suddenly. Take a position or commit an act in promptu. It flourished in Italy during the Renaissance.

In puribus

Nude, with the skin. It is a vernacular corruption of the Latin technical phrase in puris naturalibus (in a purely natural condition).

In quovis

Legal term which is generally used in maritime insurance contracts, which jeans that it was entered into without indication of the vessel, the insured obliging himself to verify the name of the ship within a certain period of time, upon the lapse of which the insurer can rescind the contract in case the insured fails to comply with said obligation.

In sententia

In his view.

In singulis

Over each point in particular; keep motionless; persist in a condition.

In situ

In the location, in the place.

In solidum

Totally, for the whole or total. Generally used to express the power or obligation common to two or more persons and which involves each of them totally.

In solutum

As part payment. It is used in forensic language in the phrase datio in solutum Generally used when the debtor gives the creditor as payment of a debt a movable or immovable thing. Insolutum por in solutum is barbarism.

In statu quo

In the same state or situation of before. Generally used in diplomatic language.

In tempore opportuno

In proper time.

In utroque (o) in utroque iure

In one and another, or in one and another law. Latin expression used to indicate a graduate or doctor is also in civil and canonic law.

In via

At the foot of the path.

In via virtuti nulla est via

There is no path closed to the value. Term or motto of Henry IV of France.

Incerta pro certis

The uncertain to the safe.


Incest. Sin of the fleshly committed by relatives within the grades marriage is prohibited. Fleshly commerce between persons united by parental bond within the grades marriage is prohibited.

Incidit in Scyllam cupiens vitare Charybdin

You have fallen in Escilia when trying to escape from Caribdis. It shows that frequently when trying to avoid a risk another similar or bigger is incurred.

Inclusio unius, exclusio alterius

The inclusion of one involves the exclusion of another. Rule of legal interpretation which indicates that when in a legal provision or any other document certain persons or things are cited expressly, it should be understood that from them are excluded any other.

Indicere mercatum

To tout a fair.

Indignae iniuriae

Undeserved injustice.

Indignari quod

Get angry because.

Indocti discant, et ament meminisse periti

Ignorant learn it and learned try not to forget it. It is wrongly assigned to Horace but it of Carlos Juan Francisco Henault (1685-1770), who wrote it at the beginning of his Chronological Compendium of the History of France (1744) referring to the significant importance that specific things and historical facts being convenient to everybody, whether learned or not learned.

Insidias alicui

Ambush against somebody.

Integrae sententiae

Issued thoughts, impartial.

Intellectorium commune

The synthetic activity of the spirit is expressed in all the status of conscience; from the physiological point of view this unifying function is represented by the brain. Some physiologists and psychologist by analogy with the sensorium commune, have used that term to name the centers located in the anterior and superior portion of the cerebral cortex where it is supposed it is located the intellective capacity to transform sensations into ideas. The conceptual elaboration has an inorganic nature and the idea of intellectorium commune is only applicable in a material system.

Intellexi ex tuis litteris

I have realized by your letters.

Intelligenti pauca

To the intelligent a little. Equivalent to the Spanish phrase: To the one who knows little words are enough. So that the term has a complete meaning it should say: Intelligenti pauca sufficiunt (to the intelligent little is enough).

Intentis oculis

With attention.

Inter arma silent leges

In the middle of the guns the laws are silent. Saying of Cicero by which it is expressed that when there is an armed fight only force controls being the laws completely forgotten and abandoned.

Inter duces convenerat, ut

It was a thing agreed upon by the judges, that.

Inter duos litigantes tertius gaudet

Between two litigants there is a third who is happy.

Inter ipsos

Between themselves.

Inter se

Each other.

Inter sicarios

Of murder.

Intercludere alicui aditum

Close the entry to somebody.

Intercludere aliquem aditu

Prevent somebody from entering.

Interdicit omnibus ne quemquam interficiant

Prohibit everybody to kill anybody.

Interdicta adipiscendae possessionis

Interdiction to acquire possession.

Interdicta recuperandae possessionis

Interdiction to recover the possession.

Interdicta retinendae possessionis

The interdiction to retain. It was of two types: Interdictum uti possidetis, to keep the possession of immovable property; interdictum utrubi, for the movables.

Interdicto de homine libero exhibendo

To show the prohibition of the free man.


Interdiction. Trial having a summary nature in which without consideration to the property issue, generally a possessory action is exercised or either one special and over real property as a provisional or preventive measure to prevent a potential injury or damage. Interdiction appeared in the ancient Rome in order to guarantee rapidly the possession and the use of the public thing. To this effect the magistrate decided the issue upon the first appearance of the litigants and he granted a decision or decree referred to interdictum by which both or either parties was prevented from doing any act (prohibiting interdiction) to restore restitutive interdiction or to exhibit a thing (exhibitory interdiction). In case of disobedience there was the Sponsio paenalis, as well as the restipulatio (mutual stipulation) for the disobedient, that is the duty to pay a certain amount to the other party in case of being the decision against him this duty being undertaken by formal promise. Later the sponsio paenalis as well as the restipulatio disappeared, the alter being an equal promise made by the opposing party the purpose of both being to make the parties think over the consequences of the conflict. In addition to these there were the interdicta retinendae possessionis, that is the interdiction to retain; the interdita recuperandae possessionis or of recovering, and the interdicta adipiscendae possessionis or of acquiring. The interdiction retinendae and recuperandae also applied by analogy to personal easements. So there was the interdiction itinere actuque privato, on behalf of the one who had made use of the right of way for 30 days and without vicious manner; the interdiction of aqua quotidiana et aestiva, for the one who had on good faith taken the use of the waters of another for the whole year or just the summer; the interdiction of de rivis, to keep the possession and be able to restore the water channels; the interdiction of de fonte, to support the right to drink water from the fountain of another; and fonte reficiendo, in order to take it back; and the interdiction of cloacis (privatis), for the clearing and recomposition of construction workers. The uti possidetis protected the possession of predial easements. In addition there was the interdictum of precarius for the restitution of a thing assigned to another under the condition of taking it back; the interdictum de clandestina possessione, used when the possession of the immovable was lost clandestinely; the interdictum Savianum, by which the creditor without possession was given the same right the secured creditor had; the interdictum demolitorium, which was the one of new contruction where the injured was able to make a private protest by which the owner was obliged to stop the construction meanwhile till the final legal decision on the issue, and the same order, cauctio damni infecti, that is of demolition, in which the magistrate granted the claimant the entry in the possession of the ruined building and even transferred the rights of the owner over it the surety to repair what could derive from the fall of the thing threatening a ruin; the interdictum quod vi clam, in order to prevent a construction on a ground having right over, that is clandestine construction; the interdictum of glande legenda, that supported the force entry to the property of another in those cases provided for by law; the interdictum de tabulis exhibendis, the purpose of which was the presentation of a person or thing for the verification of it; the interdictum de ulfore exhibendo acducenda, granted to the husband to claim the restitution of the woman by the one who had taken her illegally, the interdictum quorum bonorum, used for provisional custody of the right of succession.

Interdictum de clandestina possessione

Interdiction about the clandestine possession . Used when the possession of a real property was lost in a clandestine manner.

Interdictum de precario

Interdiction about the precarious. For the restitution of the thing assigned to another under the condition of recovering it.

Interdictum demolitorium

Is the one where the injured was able to make a private protest which obliged the owner to stop the work meanwhile till final legal decision being given on the issue, and the same order, cautio damni infecti, that is of demolition, in which the magistrate granted the claimant the entry in the possession of the ruined building and even transferred the rights of the owner over it the surety to repair what could derive from the fall of the thing threatening a ruin.

Interdictum Savianum

Interdiction by which the creditor without possession was given the same right as the one the secured creditor had.

Interposita persona

The one participating in a legal act on behalf and for the benefit of another, pretending to act in his own name.

Intolerabilius nihil est quam femina dives

Nothing more unbearable than a rich woman. Words of Decius Junius Juvenalis (58-138) in his Satire VI.

Intra legem

Within the law.

Intra quinque annos

In less than five years.

Intuita persona

Examined, viewed, seen the person.

Invehi in hostes

Launch against the enemy.

Invidiae sum alicui

I am envied by one.

Invidiam habeo ex re

I am envied because of something.

Ipso facto

By the same thing.

Ipso iure

By the same right.

Iram qui vincit, hostem superat maximum

Who controls his anger, defeats his greatest enemy. Appreciates the value of moderation.

Ire dormitum

To lie; to keep ineffective.

Is adeo tu est

That is you precisely.

Is damnum dat qui jubet dari

The injury is caused by the one who orders to be done. It sows that the blame for the commission of a bad action rests on the one causing it instead of the means or direct agent.

Is fecit cui prodest

Was done by the one who took advantage of what was done. Ancient legal postulate which is generally applied when it is suspected that the criminal is the one who took advantage of the fruits of the crime.

Is in illum sum quem tu me esse vis

I appear to his eyes as you want.

Is sum ut

I am a man to.

Isola sita est contra portum

An island is located in front of the port.

Ista vulnera

Those injuries.

Ita di me ament, ut

I put Gods as witnesses of...

Ita sunt admissi ne senatus eis daretur

They were able to enter, on condition that they were not received at senate audience.

Ita vivam ut innocens sum

I live like that, as I am innocent.


Path, tubular way. Portion or area of a way in other times of the ancient Rome used for the passage of pedestrians, horsemen and litters. They should have two feet width.

Iter criminis

Way of the crime

Iter facere

Move, travel.

Iubeo gaudere te

I wish you to be happy.



Iudiciis indignus

Unworthy of judging.

Iudicio meo

In my opinion.



Iudicum animos

The mood of the judges.


Oath. Affirmation or negation of a thing offering Gods as witness, by himself or through his creatures. All ancient philosophers, convinced of the importance of the swear, suggested the same as legislators, to only swear in important and serious cases and trials.

Iurare in patrios cineres

Swear for the ash of his father.

Iurare in verba magistri

Swear for the words of the teacher.

Iureiurando aliquem obstringere

Oblige someone under oath

Iuris tantum

Only of law. Expression that under forensic terms it means that presumption accepts evidence to the contrary .



Ius (su genitivo es iuris)


Ius ac fas omne delere

Step on any divine and human law.

Ius ad rem

Right to the issue. See Ad rem.

Ius civitatis

The right of a city.

Ius devolutum

In England, the right of the Church to appoint a vicar for the vacant church, if the owner of it does not do so within the term set forth by the law.

Ius dicere

Administer justice.

Ius est

Is of law, it is permitted; justice.

Ius est ars boni et aequi

The law is the art of the good and the bad. Phrase which is a perfect definition of law given by the Digest.

Ius est ut

It is according to law.

Ius et norma loquendi

Law and rule of language. Phrase of Horace ad Pisos in Poetics the precise words of it are: Sus, penes quem et jus et norma loquendi and which mean that the use is the arbitrator of the manner of talking, who has the right to introduce the forms of language and establish the rule of the same.

Ius gentium

Law of the people. According to the ancient law, it was the law that the Romans applied to foreigners. Nowadays it has more sense and it is the international law.

Ius imperii

Law of the emporium or the government.

Ius Latii

Law of Lazio.

Ius primae noctis

Law of the first night. The known lord’s right is the ancient law given to some feudal lords to take the virginity of the bride before the husband who was rescued after the payment of metallic tribute.

Ius privatum

Private law. The roman referred in this way to the right of the individuals between themselves, that is to say, to civil law.

Ius publicum

Public law. Roman called like this what is common to the universality of the citizens of a nation, as regards their relation with the State, that is to say the political right.

Ius relictae

Law of the abandoned. In Scotland the right of the wife to a portion of the personal property of her husband upon his death: If there are children from the marriage, she is entitled to a third otherwise to the half.

Ius sanguinis

Law of blood. Term used in international law to express that the law to be applied to a foreigner is the one of his parents or deceased, that is of the country from which he comes, and not of the one where he is. It is also referred to as law of the country and it is the system which is used in all the nations with some changes.

Ius soli

Law of soil. Term used in international law to express that the law to be applied to the foreigner is the territorial one and the one of the country from which he comes; this system being applied in almost all the American countries.

Ius suum contra aliquem

Defend his right against somebody.

Iusiurandum conservare

Keep his oath.

Iussa eficere

Carry out the orders.

Iussu populi

By people’s will.

Iusta militaria

The duties of the military life.

Iustae nuptiae

Fair wedding. This is the manner in which the Romans referred to the legal marriage.

Iustis de causis

For fair reasons.

Iustum et tenacem propositi virum

The man fair and strong willed in his purpose. First line of the Ode where Horace appreciates the fair and at the same time firm and strong willed who never losses his equanimity, and who even if the mentally disturbed orb slumped over him, its ruins would bury the fearless.

Iustum iter

Normal period.

Iustus dolor

Bearable pain.

Iuxta ac, iuxta atque


Iuxta accedere

Go nearer.

Iuxta aestimo

More of the same.

Iuxta finem vitae

Towards the end of life.

Iuxta finem vitae

Towards the end of life.

Iuxta viam

Next to the pathway, immediately after.

Iuxta viam

Next to the pathway.