Caducae hereditates

Farms without owners as a consequence of certain laws.

Caeca pericula

Unforeseen Dangers.

Caecitatem alicuius

Somebody’s blindness.

Caelo albente

At the crack of dawn.

Caelo sereno

For a calm sky.

Caelo vesperascente

In the evening.

Calor se frangit

The heat weakens.

Calvisius Taurus

Greek platonic of the II century, during Antoninus Pio´s reign, master and friend of Aulas Gellius, who left some details about the live of this character. Native of Berito (Beirut), taught platonic philosophy in Athens, striving to stress the points on which he differs from the points of Aristotle and the stoic school. He studied the penal law, and defended the need of the punishments, since he believed they recuperated the convict, revenged the offence against the society and served as example. No piece of his work is kept.

Canes latrant

Dogs bark.

Capita aut navim

Name of a popular game between the Romans, equivalent to head and tail. The roman coin had on its reverse side the bust of Jano. (Roman god of the doors) and on the reverse the bow of a ship. The Greeks had a similar game, with the exception that instead of a coin they used a black shell for one of the sides, that they threw to the air screaming: day or night.

Capitale odium

Deadly hostility.



Capite census

Name given in Rome as from the incorporation of Servius Tullius (famous roman king who is said to have reigned from 578 to 534 B.C.) to the citizens without land property. Manual workers also belonged to this category, with the exception of the carpenters, and the musicians, the latter having to serve in the army made two separate centuries.The liberties were also included under that category since they were unable to be under the other categories. Later, under Apio Claudio Cego, in 312 B.C. this name was given to the citizens whose estate was so small that amounted to 12.000 copper coins and not being able to be included under the ones having properties they were included under a separate census list of the classes under a separate century. They were exempted from taxes, did not serve in delegations and had no active and passive voting right. Earlier on the II century B.C. those rights were granted to the most affluent of them, and as from the year 107 were applied to the rest.


The lost of the civil status (other times, till death).

Causa penes iudicem est

The action is in the hands of the judge.

Cave festines

Do not hurry.

Cave ne festines

Keep from hurrying.

Cavere insidias

Keep from ambush.

Cavere tabulas

Tell me the documents.

Cedo reliqua

Tell me the rest of the things.

Celeberrima populi romani gratulatio

Congratulations from the roman people mass.

Celerius omni opinione

Quicker than expected.

Censu prohibere

Not to accept somebody in the citizens census.

Centuriata lex

Centuriated law, voted at the elections for centuries.

Cernere animo

To represent in the imagination.

Certior fieri de re ab aliquo

To be made wise and learnt on something by somebody.

Cervicibus suis rem publicam sustinere

Carry on his back the burden of the government.

Ceteri alius alio

The others left each to their way.

Circa bonas artes socordia

Disinterest regarding useful knowledge.

Circa eamdem horam

Towards the same hour.

Circa forum

In the surroundings of the forum.

Circa murum

A place next to the wall.

Circiter haec loca

Next to these locations.

Circiter meridiem

Towards midday.

Circum amplector

Cover, surround.


Circumstance. It refers to the accident of time, place, manner joined to the substance of any fact or saying. Circumstance are those facts, generally accidental, that due to their close relationship with the others have an effect on the legal effects of this others; and so the aged said that circunstantiae magnam judicat iuris diversitatem (the circumstances indicate the greater diversity of the law). The importance is different under civil and criminal law.

Citato gradu

At fast step.

Citius pubescunt, citius senescunt

The earliest they enter puberty, the earlier they grow old. It is said of women.

Cito maturum, cito putridum

Quickly matures, quickly rots. Very explanatory phrase.

Citra usum

Without practice, without reaching.

Civile bellum, jus civile

Civil war, civil law.

Civili animo ferre aliquid

Bear something with gentleness.


Civil, civic. Referring to the private relationships and interests with regards the status of the persons, family legal regulation and character of the properties.


Citizen. The one who possesses rights of citizenship, or who enjoys civil rights. Citizen condition, quality and right. Political bond that indicates the relationship existing between the State and the individuals included therein.


Citizenship is obtained by birth or choice. The first is for ius soli or ius sanguinis (right of solo or right of blood), the first being found in the law of association and the second in the law of the individual. The citizenship by choice may have different degrees: sometimes it may appear expressly by letter of nature or naturalization, and some other times in a less express manner, but always as a consequence of a fact of will.

Civitate Romanus

Rome for the citizen rights.

Clam esse

Keep in secret.

Claudite jam rivos, pueri

Young men, close the rivers. Virgilius, at the end of his third eclogue, in order to warn his shepherds that it was time to stop singing, he says to them: Close or seize now the rivers, young men, since the fields have already drank enough water. This Latin poem is used nowadays with the same meaning, to warn that is enough of one thing.


Tax officer, the one who exercises coercion. Under law it is synonym of force used over people.

Codees o Código repetitae praelationis:

Collection of imperial constitutions, made after the order of Justinian and which is part of the third of the four sections making up the Corpus Juris Civilis. Causes: 1) after the publication of the Justinian Code, 50 constitutions were made to decide on doubtful points and 250 constitutions modifying the current law which were not included under the Code; 2) as a consequence of said constitutions and the Digest publication (530) taking them into account, the legal harmony existing between the code and the original Code which was the manifestation of the law prior to Justinian, disappeared. In order to reestablish said harmony a complete revision of the Justinian Code was necessary. Author and age: The author of the Code was a commission designated by Justinian on the year 534 which consisted of Tribonian, questor of the imperial palace, Doroteo, professor of Berito´s school and the legal officials in the prefecture of the imperium capital, Menas, Constantinus and John. It consists of twelve books, subdivided into 765 titles within which 4652 Constitutions are included in general including the designation of the prince making it and the person or corporation to which it is addressed (inscriptio, registration), the place and the date when it was approved (subscriptio, subscription).


Code, Latin term variant of caudex: trunk of tree. This term has a general meaning that is important in the history of the legal literature and that afterwards received a special use by the jurists. Codex is opposed to liber (book). It was the papyrus or skin where it was written and that was rolled (volumina); the Codex was the collection of closed clapboards (and, after being the use of the papyrus generalized, of pages of this), it was intended to be opened and not rolled (they were also of papyrus, since Saint Jerome (331-420) and Domitius Ulpianus (170-223) "codice chartacei" remember them and there are a dozen of them). Liber and codex prevailed simultaneously for a long time. The oldest parchment codex that are known are not older than the III or IV century of our age. The Liber term loses its original meaning, and designates the collection of a number of pages or copybooks inferior to the codex. On the V century the codex started to be used in a special sense by the jurists. In the Law of Cites of the year 426 the term docicum refers, in the opinion of Rodolfo Sohm (1841-1917), to collections and according the majority of the interpreters, to manuscripts, this later term being confirmed by Ammiano Marcelino (330-400), who applies that word for the works (books) of the old authors. Justinian called codees the collection of the opinions of the jurists and of the imperial constitutions. The Code as a collection of laws and constitutions, tends to have the name of the prince who ordered it to be made, of the author who made it, or the subject it deals with. In a vernacular and historical sense code means every codification of legal precepts; but in a proper and present sense a code is the only law governing all the positive law of a village in some of its branches (civil, commercial, criminal, etc.) with subject, plan, era unity, as a general rule, of before, that is, of positive law in some of its branches, reduced to system, natural plan and artistic structure. The Teodosian Code and the Justinian Code are known. The word code was given to many legal bodies, which are not so, in the scientific sense of the word as in: code of Manu, code of Alaric, code of Euric, code of Adrian or Codees Canonum (V. Dionisio), Hermogenian code, Gregorian code, Justinian code, code repetitae praelationis.

Código Azul

Legislation of Louis XIV and Charles II reigns which consisted of extremely severed laws applied by anglosaxon colonists of North America.

Código Negro

Collection of provisions passed in 1685, governing slavery in North America and setting forth the rights of slaves and libertis. The term Black code generally applies to the collection of laws regulating slavery in the southern states of North America.

Coelo tonantem credimus Jovem

We believed in Jupiter when the sky thundered, says Horace in his ode V, book III, in order to express that many people do not take care of themselves to prevent future risks. To this Latin phrase corresponds to the Spanish: Not the remember Saint Barbara till it thunders.


It consisted in a fake sale (originally should have been real) that the pater familias did of the woman to the man by means of the mancipatio. In addition, the mancipatio causa matrimonii (emancipation due to marriage) differed from the ordinary one, since if the latter was established the dignity of the woman would lessen. While in the ordinary mancipatio the active subject was the man, in the coemptio was the woman (therefore, the books said that it was the woman the one who did the coemptio with the husband), if the woman was sui iuris, consent of the guardian or pater was only required on the one hand, on the other hand in the coemptio, both spouses mutually questioned, and even though there are some authors who affirm that the husband mentioned the same formula as the purchaser under the ordinary emancipation, this is not acceptable since the woman was not under (servile condition)

Cogere agmen

Close the track

Cogitare de lana sua

Undertake his issues.

Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur

The thought is not subject to punishment. Legal aphorism by which it is meant that the criminal thought not accompanied by any action which constitutes a crime, is not subject to liability under the civil law.

Cogito, ergo sum

I think, therefore I am. Aphorism of Descartes (1596-1650), who took it from the one of St. Augustine: si fallor, sum: if I am mistaken, I exist; and which served as a basis to found his philosophical system.

Cognomen sapientis habere

Be called as nickname “the wise”.

Cohortes ad munitiones

The cohorts towards the entrenchment.

Coire societatem sceleris cum alicuo

Participate with someone in a mob (collaborate) for the crime.

Colloquio diem

A day for an interview.

Colubrem in sinu fovere

Bring up a snake in her chest; it is equivalent to the Spanish: bring up ravens and they will take out your eyes.

Comitas gentium

Hospitality of the people. Under international law it is equivalent to courtesy, friendship, kindness or mutual interest of the nations based on the relation of the parties. This principle serves as basis to many rules of international law not deriving from natural justice and not included under arrangements therefore saying that they are observed ob comitatem (due to politeness); as the ones observed upon the visits of sovereigns, receipt of diplomatic agents, or the duties imposed by civilization. Compliance with the comitas gentium rules is according to Pascual Fiore (1837-1914) a moral duty of the States.

Commisit scelus atque etiam gloriatur se commisisse

Committed a crime and even boasts on it.

Communi obnoxiae

Related to a common crime.

Compelle intrare

Obliged to enter. It is equivalent to the vernacular phrase: hang by force.

Competencia ratione loci

Jurisdiction as to venue.

Compluribus partibus

Of many parts.

Componitur orbis regis ad exemplum

The inferior follow the example and imitate the customs of the superior. It is equivalent to the Spanish phrase: as the abbot sings the sexton responds.

Compos culpae


Compos mentis

That is in his right mind.

Compos voti

Which saw his wishes come through

Composita oratio

Speech made with art.

Composito vultu

With tranquil face.

Compressis labris

Having the lips closed.


Compromise. Considered by the Roman law as an obligation of fact, not by the agreement of the parties but by the acceptance of the arbitrator, who the magistrate obliged to comply with his function by virtue of a an action in factum, as in this age the compromise is a praetorian agreement (receptum arbitrii), which extinguished by its fulfillment and the death of the ribero. In the Justinian age it turned into a lawful agreement in the two cases indicated in the cited place (from which only the last one survives in the right of the Novels), therefore it gave rise to the action ex stipulatu or the action in factum, depending on their force deriving from the stipulation or the confirmation the parties did of the arbitration award.

Con dicha locución se quiere indicar que el hombre de las edades primitivas se sintió inclinado a adorar lo que admiraba y, sobre todo, lo que le daba miedo o le causaba pavor; de aquí la adoración de las fuerzas de la naturaleza personificados en un

Con el postliminio se evitaba la extensión definitiva de las relaciones jurídicas del ciudadano hecho prisionero, las que renacían cuando éste volvía; pero continuaban en pie las mismas consecuencias para el caso de que el prisionero muriese en su ca

Con los pactos non nuda se formaron tres grupos por los autores, atendiendo a la fuente de donde procedió el reconocimiento de la acción que producían a saber:

Concedes multo hoc esse gravius

You will admit that this case is much more serious.

Concilium plebis

Elections in tribes.

Concilium populi

Elections in curia or centuries.


Accord. Treaty or agreement on ecclesiastical issues that the Government of a State enters into with the Holy See. They are so since: 1) they are not public treaties between two equal powers; 2)they are about spiritual cases; 3) they are not made with a temporary pontiff but the Holy See; 4) the Pope can revoke them without the assent of the other party if under the circumstances they are contrary to the Church.

Conditio sine qua non

Condition without which no. It is understood that without the condition, a thing is not done.


It was the formula by which marriages were holy therefore being a truly religious marriage. It consisted of three parts: 1) Traditio or delivery of the woman to the husband by her pater familias; 2) Deductio in domo, direction of the woman from the father’s house to the one of the husband this direction being made with majesty, carrying a trim of flowers on the woman’s head, which was covered with a white mantle; 3) the real confarreatio, religious proceeding having a legal nature which was carried out with a surprising formality and old ceremonies. It took place probably during its first times in the holy place of the curies and, afterwards in the husband’s address, being supposed there were special days for its celebration, since the Romans divided them into fastos and nefastos. The main ceremonies were: the offering of a flour cake to Jupiter (farreum panis) and the mentioning of certain holy words. The offering was made by the isolated pontiff of the flamen - dialis; the couple being sat in joined seats, and having their heads covered by the skin of the beer having been sacrificed and the pontiff distributed the farreum to them. The holy phrases (verba certa et solemnia: certian and formal words) are evidenced by Ulpianus and Gaius, but we have not heard of the formula. The pontiff would say the husband: pater familias esse volet? (do you want to be a family father?) and to the woman: mater familias esse volet?. Dantz believes these words were said after the offering since Gaius talks before this offering.


The confarreatio was special for the patrician; the children of the marriage verified by the confarreatio were named patrini et matrini, and could only perform the functions of reges sacrorum and flamines maiores the ones having born from this type of marriage.

Congestis telis

Under a rain of darts.


Conspirators, plotters.


Consanguinity. Bond, union, deriving from consanguinity, of many persons deriving from the same root or trunk. Under the law it refers to the relationship deriving from the father (then, the brothers of the same father and different mothers, while uterine is the name given to the ones of the same mother and different fathers). Consanguinity can be legitimate (lawful), and illegitimate (unlawful), and this later natural o no natural, according to the persons and the fact from which they derive. Under the roman law it was equivalent to the cognatio, but as to its effects it was not different to the cognatio, it was only more lasting, since it did not distinguish from the capitis diminutio minima. It continued endlessly till the infinite. In collateral line and during the first times it prevented the marriage till the sixth degree; but this severity disappeared before the end of the second Punic war and even the prohibition between first cousins (consobrini); was rejected at the end of the Republic. Under the empire the marriage between collaterals was permitted, unless one of them was only one degree from the main trunk, (brother and sister, uncle and niece, aunt and nephew, etc.), however this rule had two exceptions, to wit: 1) the one that permitted the marriage between the uncle from the side of the father and the niece, as a consequence of a counseling senate created so that Claudio was able to marry Agrippina, and 2) it was prohibited again, by influence of the Christianism, the marriage between first cousins; but these two exception disappeared, the first in the year 342 and the second was annulled under Justinian.

Consans pax

Inalterable peace.

Conserta acies

Hand to hand combat.

Consertum vocare


Consessu omnium

Related to unanimous assent.

Considerare ne

Try to avoid that.

Considerare ut

Patrol that.

Consilii non fraudulenti nulla obligatio

Rule of the Digest which means than nobody is responsible for the damage that might derive from the advice given, unless it was given by fraud and deceit.

Consilio et manu (Consilio manuque)

With ability and action.

Consilio uti

Adopt a piece of advice

Consilium capere

Create the purpose of.

Conspirare ne

To reach an agreement to prevent that.


Constitution. Action and effect of constituting. Essence and quality of the thing that constitutes as so. Government type or system governing each State; theory and practice of nations` governance. Law or fundamental code that constitutes the basis of said system. Under Constitutional law, every State needs and always has a specific organization by virtue of which manifests and performs its functions. This organization is determined by a rule having legal nature and designated as Constitution, therefore defining it from that point of view, as the rule or legal rule that determines the fundamental organization of the State.

Consuetudinem (acusativo de consuetudo

A custom; approve.

Consulere crudeliter in cives (o) de civibus

Treat the citizens with cruelty.

Consummatum est

Everything consumes. Last words of Christ. It refers to what causes the final termination of something, for instance: The sea battle of Lepanto was the consummatum est of the power of the crescent.

Contendit falsa iis esse delata

Asserts that were given false information.

Contio magis vera quam grata

Speech more true than pleasant.

Contra fortunam

Against misfortunes.


Contract. Pact, adjustment or arrangement that creates an obligation between the parties that enter into them or use them up.

Contraria contrariis curantur

The opposed are cured by the opposed. Principle of allopathic medicine, that is to say, traditional medicine that cures illnesses with medicine that is contrary to the symptoms of the illnesses.

Contumeliis opertus

Oppress with assaults.


Convention. Pact, adjustment, agreement, arrangement. Assembly taking on all the powers of a country.

Corpora constricta vinculi

Bodies loaded with chains.

Corpus delicti

Body of evidence.

Corpus juris canonici

Body of canonic law. The term corpus applied to designate the collection of laws of the Church representing the character of a whole, it is very old; the designation Corpus canonum (body of canons), was already given in the Collectio Anselmo dedicata (collection created by Anselm), as the Decretorum corpus to the Decree of Gratian; Innocenci IV calls the Decretales Corpus juris.

Corpus juris civilis

Body of civil law. It is the collection of the Justinian legislative amendments in their last condition, in the following order: Institutions, Digest or Pandects. Codex repetitae praelationis and novels. The Corpus juris civilis can be considered from two points of view: as a Justinian law source and as the compilation of legal material, mostly of the classical age.

Corpus nummorum italicorum

Numismatic collection under the power of the king of Italy Victor Manuel III, created by the self sovereign. Traced from this collection the Reale Academia dei Licei lately Publisher a work with the same headline, including 42 plates with more than 700 reproductions between the 1354 coins described in the play.

Corpus parricidae feris

The body of a parricide to the beasts.

Corruptio optimi pessima

The corruption of the best is the worst, in the physical and moral order.

Corruptio unius est generatio alterius

The corruption of a being is the creation of another.

Credendum est

It is to be believed.


It is believed.

Crepitus digitorum

Finger rattling, between the Romans.


Crime, offence, fault. The possessive case of criminis (of the crime, of the offence).

Crimen maiestatis

Accusation of lesa majesty.

Crucem alicui

One to the scaffold.

Crudelitatem alicuius

The cruelty of somebody.

Crudelitatem in aliquo

Be sadistic with somebody.

Cum aliquo

Against somebody.

Cum Clitum interfecisset, sui facinoris Alexandrum paenituit

When ( or as, or after, o having) he killed Clito, Alejandro remorsed his crime.

Cum id cupias

As you want so.

Cum maxime

When above everything.

Cum patre

With my father.

Cum prima luce

At the crack of dawn.

Cum primum

As soon as.

Cum silentio

In silence.

Cur nocere mihi cogitas?

Why do you try to hurt me?

Cura ut valeas

Try to keep well.


Curatorship, take care, look alter. Institution (called curatorship), which as the guardianship, had the purpose of replacing the lack of capacity to act of the persons who were not under parens patriae. It differs from the guardianship which was given in special cases and for the sake of age, commenced when that ended. Institution created and governed by the roman law, now it has only historical importance, for having many civil codes recasted under guardianship, it appears in the Twelve Tables, for the wild and the spendthrift, who were subjected to guardianship since the first had no intelligence and the second had it complete. With time it extended to other cases and as from the IV century of Rome to the minors. Has the same starting point as the guardianship and develops pari passu.


Race, competition. The plural of curriculum is curricula.

Curriculum vitae

The race (duration, course) of life.


The vigilance.