A latere aperto

On the uncovered wing of the army.

A nostro conspectu

To our sight.

A nullo videbatur, ipse autem omnia videbat

Nobody saw him, and he could see everything.

A prima luce

From dawn.

A verbis ad verbera

From the words to the lashings.

Ab aliquo summam gratiam inire

To get from the other the greatest favour. Ab intestato: Intestate. Ab eo flumine collis nascebatur: On the border of that river straightened up a hill. Ab re frumentaria: In the provision of wheat.

Ab universo populo

Among the whole village.

Ab urbe

From the city.

Ab urbe condita

City foundation. Roman used to give each year the name of the consul governing the city until they arranged the cronology starting from the year 743 B.C., which corresponded to the foundation of Rome.Teniendo en cuenta estos datos, para hacer el cómputo de un año determinado con el correspondiente de la era cristiana había que saber en qué año dominó el cónsul que se cite para reducirlo al de ab urbe condiga y éste (753) restarlo del año cristiano. Si el año a ab urbe condiga (de la fundación) es mayor de 753, al restar esta cifra quedar en el año correspondiente de la era cristiana.

Ab utroque latere

For both sides; side or line of kinship.

Accedat huc oportet

To this we should add.


Facts, feats, things dealt with, public acts.

Actum est de Republica

Everything is lost; or everthing was taken by the trap, as commonly said.

Actum ut supra

Made as can be read above. Its abbreviation is A.U.S. A formula frequently used in protocol compilations and other old documents.


Act. Term used in Rome in order to refer to an act causing legal effects. Under the Roman law it refers to a ius in re aliena (immovable right over a third party immovable), consisting in a rustic easementconsistente en una servidumbre real rústica de paso, which is defined by Justinian and the Digest, after Ulpiano: ius agendi vel iumentum vel vehiculum, (right to lead livestock or vehicles) along a property foreign to the dominant tenement.

Actus juridicialis

Legal act. In order to be a legal act there should be more than a subject and an object with some capacity, there should also be something that creates a relation between them, this relation causing a tie or a bond that joins them which turns the legal relations from the stage of possibility to the stage of existence. This third element is the fact, which as a creator of legal effects is referred to as legal fact. When this legal fact derives from the human will it is referred to as legal act. A legal act is not the same as a legal fact. The legal act can be defined as "the fact dependant on the human will that has an influence for the origination, modification or termination of legal relations".

Actus juridicialis

For the Germans a legal act is "an expression or manifestation of the will addressed to create a legal effect (origination, modification, defense or termination of some legal relation) and proper to do so according to positive law".

Actus juridicialis

The legal acts: legitimate or ilegitimate, just or unjust, legal or ilegal, unilateral or bilateral, inter vivos (between the living) and mortis causa (by reason of death), gratuitous or onerous, formal or informal. The acts according to the positive law were formerly divided into en stricti iuris and bonae fidei (of strict law and of good faith).

Actus juridicialis

The stricti iuris were the ones that interpreted strictly, for instance, the ones of special usefulness.

Actus juridicialis

The ones of bonae fidei, interpreted according to equity, such as the ones of common usefulness; so the difference was that in the ones of strict law adherence had to be to the literal meaning of the words used by the parties, as oppossed to the ones of good faith, where the intention had to be observed. This distinction has lost all of its significance at present.

Actus rerum

Act of the things. Exprssion that in the courts of the ancient Rome was equivalent to what is now referred to as in the curia as business days or periods, since it indicated the periods when the courts worked. The days when pagan parties were considered holiday.

Ad aliquem

Approach to anyone.

Ad beate vivendum

In order to live happily

Ad bestias damnare

Convicted to be eaten by the beasts

Ad captandum vulgus

To win or attract the populace

Ad cautelam

As precaution. Acquit ad cautelam is used in ecclesistical trials upon acquittal of the accused when there is doubt as to whether he has committed a crime.Under the Roman law it was also referred to as "derogatory covenant ad cautelam" the one of the testator under his testament, expressing his will that no other testament done in the future be valid, as an specific word o sign was not included.

Ad certam diem

At a fixed date.

Ad coetum geniti sumus

We are breeded for an encounter. Saying of Lucio Anneo Séneca (s. IV A.D.) to express the social nature of human beings.

Ad complendum

To end. General title given to the final performance of anofficiate, one or more performances accompanied by the versicles of the diaca or celebrant.

Ad corpus

In the body.

Ad decem milia annorum

In ten thousand years.

Ad frigora atque aestus vitandos

In order to avoid cold and heat.

Ad fundum o in fudum

To visit a farm.

Ad futuram memoriam

To remain for posterity or the future.

Ad gloriam

For the glory; and ironically, for nothing.

Ad graecos, Rex bene, fiant mandata calendas

Good King, put the calendas in order. Hex metro used by Elizabeth of England to answer a claim made by Philip I of Spain

Ad hanc diem

Up to date.

Ad hastam

At public auction.

Ad hoc

What is done or said for a specific purpose. Ex professo, to this thing.

Ad hominem

An ad hominen argument is the one that confuses an adversary with his own words. This term also refers to the reasoning that affects severily the interests of the person one is dealing with.

Ad honorem o ad honores

It applies to the honorary position with no payment nor exercise, in which the person holding it does not pursue any financial purpose but the honor and pleasure of holding it. It is used ironically to refer to the charges and inconviniences the person in that position suffers without getting any benefits.

Ad hostes contendere

March against the enemies.

Ad huc stat

Freemasonry expression, engraved as a motto under a broken column.

Ad huc sub iudice lis est

The case is still in the judge’s hands. It means that a matter was not solved or that there is no solution for an issue yet.

Ad hunc modum

In this way.

Ad irato

Expression used in music to explain that a composition must be played with anger, for instance, quickly.

Ad iudicem dicere

Speak before the judge.

Ad libitum


Ad maiorem Dei gloriam

Used for the first time in the Canones et Decreta aecumenici concilii Tridentini (1542-60). It is sometimes used for other purposes, like ad maiorem rei litterariae gloriam, Ad maiorem regis gloriam (to the greater glory of the king).

Ad marginem

On one side. Reference or note made in that section of the writing, work, etc.

Ad me redeat oportet

It is better that it comes back to me.

Ad meliorem fortunam

Equal to: for better circumstances.

Ad metalla

This is the phrase used to designate one of the most cruel punishments applied to those who professed Christianism. Calistrato (Athen’s speaker of the IV century BC admired by Demosthenes) describes it as the maxima mortis sentence (maximum death sentence). In ministerium Metallicorum (in the ministry of the metallic) was the phrase used to express the destiny of the condemned.

Ad modum

According to way and manner.

Ad nauseam usque

Until provoking nauseas.

Ad nihilum redigere


Ad notam

Remark, note.

Ad notitiam

Up to what is known, up to knowledge.

Ad nutum

At pleasure, at will.

Ad omnia summa

For all the biggest things.

Ad patres

Towards fathers. To meet ancestors.

Ad pedem litterae


Ad perpetuam

Forever. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam (for perpetual memory of the issue).

Ad praesens ova cras pullis sunt meliora

Today’s eggs are more valuable than tomorrow’s hens. In English: a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

Ad probationem

For the purposes of evidence.

Ad quem

To whom. It is used to express, in legal terminology, the fact of giving until it is counted. On the contrary, the expression a quo is used to designate the fact of giving from what it is counted.

Ad rem

Equal to the case, issue. In English: straight to the point. It is used to call the attention of an interlocutor about the main issue.

Ad rem publicam

Start to deal with the public interests

Ad sollicitandas civitates

To take possession of the cities

Ad sueta portula

The customary door

Ad summum

To the most

Ad unguem

Till perfection. Figurative expression taken by Horace (65-8 B.C.), from the habit of workers to polish with the nail.

Ad urbem esse

To be close to the city

Ad usum

To the use of. The ceremony ad usum is celebrated

Ad verbum

Close to the letter

Ad vocem

To this word…it should be observed that, this reminds me. Similar to the Spanish: by the way.

Adde parum parvo, magnus acervus erit

Add a little to a little and you will have a great amount. Equivalent to an old saying:poquito a poco hila la vieja el capo, or many fews make a lot.

Addendum eodem est ut

To this still must be added that...

Addicentibus auspiciis

Having the auspices been favourable.

Addicentibus auspiciis

The auspices having been favorable.

Addictio bonorum

Adjudication of property, done by the Master (teacher) to the one having offered a higher price in compulsory sales of properties for unfulfillment of duties (see Bonorum venditio)

Addictio bonorum libertatum servandorum causa

Transfer of the property in order to preserve freedom. This expression is used to designate the allocation of the vacant succession to a third party or a slave who was claiming it, by posting a bond to guarantee payment to creditors, this was introduced so that the manumissions established in a will could take effect.

Addictio debitoris

Debtor's arrest. In Roman Law the insolvent debtor who had been allocated to the creditor in order that the latter could collect his debt, was called addictus. Initially, the condemnatio (sentence) delivered by the judge did not confer any rights upon the debtor’s property, but upon the debtor. In case debtor had neither paid nor presented a guarantor (vindex) within thirty days after the sentence, he could be allocated to the creditor if the latter filed the manus injectio, thus becoming the addictus, a term that comes from addictio (allocation) the magistrate ordered. The XII Tables established in detail the weight of the chains that could be used and how much food could be given to him while he was in custody at the creditor’s house. The Addictus and the slave were not on an equal footing, as the addictus was free, he could reach a compromise with his creditor and pay. The XII Tables obliged the creditor to take the addictus to the public market three consecutive times during this period of 60 days (tertiis nundinis) and say aloud his name, his debt and its amount in order to find any third party who may be willing to free him. If after that sixty-day term neither the addictus nor any third party had paid the debt, the creditor may sell the addictus abroad as a slave (trans Tiberim) or put him to death, acquiring title to his property, to which he succeeded by virtue of capitis deminutio (statute of limitations, loss of civil rights) in the first case, and of death, in the second one. Furthermore, considering the existence of more that one creditor, the XII Tables stated that (notwithstanding the possibility of selling him and sharing the price and his property) they may also share his body: partis secanto. If plus minusve in fraude esto (proportionally, if more or less there was fraud), there being no issue in one of them taking more than another one (Table III, De rebus creditis). Extensive discussions were held regarding whether this text must be interpreted literally or not; the affirmative answer being the safest. Nevertheless, it must be said that this procedure was not applied much, Girard points that, undoubtedly, the most used practice was to extend custody until full payment was made. The debtor’s addictio is based on the nexum (obligation, sale contract); for that reason when the nexum disappeared, the addictio became weaker. The Poetelia Papiria law, enacted in Rome in 428, softened the addicti’s situation by prohibiting creditors from putting the debtor to death or selling him and by abolishing the 60-day term for detention; the lex Coloniae Genitivae Iuliae still mentions the chains, but not slavery or death. In general terms, it can be stated that the debtor’s addicitio was replaced by prison, which in later Law was applied in State prisons and by the proscriptio et venditio bonorum (proscription and sale of goods). This institution was not proper of Roman Law, modern investigations discovered that the Salic law contained similar provisions to those of the XII Tables and that the same happened with Scandinavian laws.

Addictio debitoris

Addictio debitoris

Addictio debitoris

Addictio in diem

This is the term used to refer to an agreement ancillary to the sale contract, by virtue of which the parties agree that the seller will have, until a certain date, the right to assign the object to another person who may make a better offer than that one agreed upon in the sale contract. The formula used for this agreement, as the Digest mentions, was: Ille fundus, centum esto tibi emptus, nisi si quis intra kalendas januarias proximas meliorem conditionem fecerit quo res a domino habeat (that fund you bought for a hundred, except you receive a better offer on the first day of January, in which case the owner's object is divided). It is an archaic formula that, as it can be clearly noticed, is only illustrative.

Addictio in diem

The nature of this agreement is considered from two points of view: as if its aim was to make the sale conditional and as a cancellation agreement, maintaining the sale pure and simple. This last point of view is the most important one and the one that should prevail in case of doubt; and considering the addictio in diem effects from this point of view, they can be reduced to the following: in order that the agreement could be enforced, an offer better than the one of the original sale had to be formally made to the seller. If that was the case, the seller may claim its enforcement but he had to serve notice to the original purchaser, who, in turn, may keep the object offering equal advantages; if the purchaser did not use this formula, the seller may claim the enforcement of the agreed upon agreement by virtue of the actio venditio por la praescriptis verbis (prewriten words).

Addictio litis

In the sense of legislations, it meant the loss of the case on the part of the non-appearing party in judicio (at Trial), having waited for him past midday.

Addictio rei

Allocation made by a Magistrate of a thing to someone who was claiming it, when there was no opposition on the other part, in the system of legis actiones (legal actions).

Adficere aliquem laetitia, muneribus

Make someone happy, give gifts to someone.

Adligare scelere se

To get involved in a crime.

Adplicatio ad patronum

Attachment to the patron. Formula used by original Roman Law to express the relationship created by a servant towards his patron, when, in turn, the latter accepted him in his service (susceptio clientis: client’s acceptance).

Adsentio tibi ut

I agree with you that

Adsum amicis

I help my friends

Adulescentibus favetur

Protection to the young is given.

Adulta virgo

Young already matured



Adversis musis

With scarce talent

Adverso amne

Against the current;upstream

Adverso flumine

Against the current; taking back the river

Adversus hostem aeterna auctoritas esto

Therefore, eternal authority to the enemy. Principle under the XII Tables XII which was misinterpreted, and which in fact it only prohinited the foreigner to take by statute of limitations the things belonging to a Roman citizen. The term hostis has the idea of guest.

Advocatorum error litigantibus non nocet

The mistake of the lawyers does not hurt the litigants. Unfortunately, modern legislators did not follow this equitable rule of the roman law.

Advocatus diaboli

Evil’s lawyer.


Prostrate oneself.

Aedificare de suo

Build his expenses.

Aeger morbo gravi

Seriously sick.

Aequalium, adeo superiorum intolerans

Unable to bear his equals.

Aequam memento servare mentem

Remember to always keep a perfect equal character. Taken from the III Ode of the book II, first volume of Horace (65-8 B.C.), frequently repeated by different authors.

Aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque

What is advantageous for the rich and the poor.

Aequitas relligio judicantis

Equity is the religion of the one who judges. These are words of the Digest, which point out that the laws must be interpreted, when possible, in a manner favorable to the accused.

Aequitas sequitur legem

Equity should accompany the law. All the laws should be applied precisely.

Aequitatem verbis

Contradict justice with words.

Aequo animo

With calm character.

Aequo pulsat pede

Hurts with equal foot. Taken from the judgment of Horace (65-8 B.C.) in one of his odes: pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauporum tabernas regumque turres (pale death hurts with equal foot the huts of the poor and the palaces of the kings); or as written by Iriarte: 1) death with equal feet; 2) measures the strawy hut; 3) and the real palaces.

Aerarium privatum

Special treasure.

Aerarium sacrum o sacrae largitiones

Holy treasure or sacred grants.

Aerata securis

Bronze axe.

Aere alieno obrui

To be oppressed with debts.

Aere perennius

More long lasting than bronze. It is used to indicate that a play is intended to live for ever, based on its great worth.

Aes alienum

Debt. Name given by the Romans to the general debts, but especially to money debts.

Aes debitorem leve, gravius inimicum facit

The small debt is not a debt, and the big one creates an enemy against us.

Aes equestre

Equestrian debt. This was the name given in Rome to the amount of money given by the State to provide each horseman with two horses.

Aes et libram

Of the copper and the scale. Popular proceeding under the roman law, so much known, that there was no contract that failed to submit itself to the copper and scale.

Aes hordearium

Barley related debt. Name of the tax created by Tarquinius the old over the widows and the orphans, in order to contribute to the military expenses, and specially, in order to feed the horses paid by the State.

Aes manuarium

Money earned in the games. The names originates from the fact that it was collected with the hand.

Aes militare

Military wage or payment. Portion of the tax that was levied in Rome over the persons released from the military service which was intended for the payment of salaries.

Aes rude

Generic term given to the copper bars that were used by the Romans as metallic instrument in the changes.

Aes triplex circa pectus

A threefold bronze around the chest. These are the words of Horace (Ode III) to describe the daring of the first sailors.

Aes uxorium

Debt of the married woman. Tribute established by Marcus Furius Camilo so called the second founder of Rome (IV century B.C.) to the single men and obliged them to marry the widows of the citizens that were killed for the country. It seems to be an application of what was established by Tarquino the old, over the widows, maiden and orphans.

Aeschines in Demosthenem invehitur, at quam rhetorice

Esquines attacks Demosthenes, but ¡with so much rhetoric! Expressions.

Aestimatio litium

Evaluation of the punishment.

Aetas puerilis

The childhood; generation.

Age libertate decembris

Act freely as in December. It refers to the saturnalia parties celebrated in December and during which the greater excesses were permitted.

Agere aliquid; nihil

Do something; no to do anything.

Agere hiemem sub tectis

Spend the winter with shelter.

Agere nihil aliud nisi

To do nothing else than.

Agere otia

Live on laziness.

Agere pacem

Live on peace.

Agitur de parricidio

A parricide case is ventilated

Agnosco veteris, vestigia flammae

Where there was fire, there is ember. Words used by Dido, widow of Siqueo, to confess her sister she feels for Eneas the passion she feels for her first husband. (Virgilius, Aeneid, book IV).

Agri divisionem

The division of a territory.

Ahora bien, un antecedente falso evidentemente que no puede tener fuerza en ningún caso y, por tanto, dicho argumento no prueba nada. Así, se trata de probar que los ángulos de un triángulo exceden a un recto. Se prueba con tal demostración que al mi

Ala equitum

Troop of chivalry.

Albescere lux


Alea iacta est

The die is cast; uncertainty.

Alicui aliquid (o) de aliqua re

Narrate somebody something.

Alicui aliquid vitio

Something to somebody as defect.

Alicui bene dicere

Speak well of somebody.

Alicui damnum

Damage to somebody.

Alicui dicto

To the commands of somebody.

Alicui diem necis destinare

Set the date of somebody’s execution.

Alicui facultatem dare (o facere):

Give somebody the opportunity.

Alicui gratias referre:

Give somebody signs of recognition.

Alicui male:

Insult somebody.

Alicui molestiam:

Dissatisfaction to somebody.

Alicui munera

Gifts to somebody.

Alicui nomen do

I give somebody a name.

Alicui rei nomen dare

To give a name to a thing.

Alicuius rei

Of something.

Alicuius rei memoriam deponere

Let forget the memory of something.

Alii aliter tradunt

Some tell it in a way and others tell it in another,

Aliis magis quam aliis

To some better than to others.

Alio atque alio

Here and there.

Alio modo

In a different manner.

Alio pacto


Aliqua re uti et frui

Use and enjoy the properties.

Aliqua re; de aliqua re o in aliqua

Of something for something.


For some time.

Aliquem a loco, ab aliquo

Distance somebody from something, from somebody.

Aliquem a tergo

To one from the back.

Aliquem aliqua re

To somebody of something.

Aliquem aliquam rem

To someone a thing.

Aliquem civitate

To one with citizenship right.

Aliquem clamore

To one with clamor.

Aliquem contra (in) aliquem

To somebody against someone.

Aliquem crucis

Free someone from his grief.

Aliquem de aliqua re

Keep somebody ignorant about something.

Aliquem furti

To somebody for theft.

Aliquem heredem

Heir to somebody.

Aliquem in conspectum Caesaris

Somebody before the Caesar.

Aliquem in exilium


Aliquem in murum

To somebody on the wall; excite to the full; strengthen.

Aliquem iniuria

Somebody with defamations.

Aliquem invehens

Free from somebody’s attacks.

Aliquem laudabimus

To someone from the praise.

Aliquem leges

Teach someone the laws.

Aliquem longis epistulis

To someone with long letters.

Aliquem male habere

Mistreat somebody.

Aliquem pecunia

To one with money.

Aliquem pro amico habere

Consider someone as a friend.

Aliquem virgis

To someone with beatings with a stick.

Aliquid alicui (o ab alicuo)

Remove something from somebody.

Aliquid fidei alicuius

Something to the loyalty of somebody.

Aliquid in bonis

Something among the properties.

Aliquid magnum

Something big.

Aliquid pignori

Something as a pledge.

Aliquid sorte

To die a cast.

Aliquis de militibus

One of the soldiers.

Aliquo loco

Sail from a place.

Aliquod anni

A certain number of years.

Aliter atque aliter

In another way and still in another.

Aliter sentis atque dicis

You do not speak as you think.

Alius alia via discessit

Each one took a different way.

Alius atque

In another way that.

Alma pax

Benefactress peace.

Almus ager

Fertile field.

Alquem otiosum

To one inactive.

Alquid alicui rei

Something to the contour of something.

Alte cinetus

Determined man.

Alternis diebus

One day yes and another not.

Altiora murorum

The highest of the walls.


Height of the hill, depth of a river, greatness of soul.


I beg you.


A case is discussed, is made known.

Amicus certus

Tested friend.

Amore alicuius

For somebody’s love.

Amurcam cum aqua

Dilute oil in the water; join, mix up.

Ancipiti Marte

With uncertain success.


Fall to pieces, stoop to.

Annos natus maior quadraginta

Older than forty years old.

Annus locuples frugibus

Wheat plentiful year.

Ante annum

A year before.

Ante hostium adstare

Keep in front of the door.

Ante tempus

Before the desired moment.

Apud aram

At the foot of the pulpit.

Apud maiores nostros

At our forefathers´ time.

Apud Platonem est dictum

It is said in Plato’s work.

Aram sanguine

Spring blood on the pulpit, befog, mist.

Argentum deterius est auro

Silver is inferior to gold.

Argumentum a pari (o) a simili

Argument of equality. It is the one based on reasons of similarity and equality between the proposed fact and from the one who stems from it.

Argumentum ad crumenam

Stock argument. It is raised for getting what is wanted with money when reason is lacking.

Argumentum ad ignorantiam

It refers to the argument proper to the ignorance of the person with whom we are discussing.

Argumentum ad iudicium

Argument of trial. It refers to the one that appeals to common sense.

Argumentum ad terrorem

Argument of fear. It is the one that points more to sensitivity than to intelligence, it is used a lot in oratory.

Argumentum ad verecundiam

Argument of discretion. The one who provokes the respect owed to the authority.

Argumentum baculinum

Argument of sticks. It is used in those cases when there being no reason, the answer is with a bludgeon, based on the law of the jungle.

Arma per pactionem tradere:

Surrender, give up the arms under a pact.

Arma pugnae

The arms for the fight.

Armis jus suum

His rights for the arms.

Artificium comicum

Comedian talent.

Artium magister

Master in arts. In ancient times it referred to the one who was a master in liberal arts, and at present to the one in fine arts.

Arva Neptunia

Neptune plains; the sea.

At contra (o) at vero

But, on the contrary.

At enim

But it is that...

Atque adeo, atque etiam, atque adeo etiam

And still, and even, what is more.

Atque idem ego hoc contenido

And in addition I pretend this.


But with all that; however.

Auctorem esse alicuius interficiendi

Cause the death of somebody.


I hear; understand.

Aut certe, aut saltem

Or as a minimum, or at least

Aut denique

Or at last.

Aut fortasse

Or, probably or maybe.

Aut insanit homo aut versus facit

The man is either crazy or writes poems.

Aut omnino

Or at least.

Aut potius

Or better.

Aut sane

Or if desired.

Aut summum

Or at best.

Aut... aut etiam

Or... or even.

Avaritiam pecunia

The greed with money.

Aveo scire quid agas

I am anxious to know what you do.