A latere aperto

On the uncovered wing of the army.

A nostro conspectu

To our sight.

A nullo videbatur, ipse autem omnia videbat

Nobody saw him, and he could see everything.

A prima luce

From dawn.

A verbis ad verbera

From the words to the lashings.

Ab aliquo summam gratiam inire

To get from the other the greatest favour. Ab intestato: Intestate. Ab eo flumine collis nascebatur: On the border of that river straightened up a hill. Ab re frumentaria: In the provision of wheat.

Ab universo populo

Among the whole village.

Ab urbe

From the city.

Ab urbe condita

City foundation. Roman used to give each year the name of the consul governing the city until they arranged the cronology starting from the year 743 B.C., which corresponded to the foundation of Rome.Teniendo en cuenta estos datos, para hacer el cómputo de un año determinado con el correspondiente de la era cristiana había que saber en qué año dominó el cónsul que se cite para reducirlo al de ab urbe condiga y éste (753) restarlo del año cristiano. Si el año a ab urbe condiga (de la fundación) es mayor de 753, al restar esta cifra quedar en el año correspondiente de la era cristiana.

Ab utroque latere

For both sides; side or line of kinship.

Accedat huc oportet

To this we should add.


Facts, feats, things dealt with, public acts.

Actum est de Republica

Everything is lost; or everthing was taken by the trap, as commonly said.

Actum ut supra

Made as can be read above. Its abbreviation is A.U.S. A formula frequently used in protocol compilations and other old documents.


Act. Term used in Rome in order to refer to an act causing legal effects. Under the Roman law it refers to a ius in re aliena (immovable right over a third party immovable), consisting in a rustic easementconsistente en una servidumbre real rústica de paso, which is defined by Justinian and the Digest, after Ulpiano: ius agendi vel iumentum vel vehiculum, (right to lead livestock or vehicles) along a property foreign to the dominant tenement.

Actus juridicialis

Legal act. In order to be a legal act there should be more than a subject and an object with some capacity, there should also be something that creates a relation between them, this relation causing a tie or a bond that joins them which turns the legal relations from the stage of possibility to the stage of existence. This third element is the fact, which as a creator of legal effects is referred to as legal fact. When this legal fact derives from the human will it is referred to as legal act. A legal act is not the same as a legal fact. The legal act can be defined as "the fact dependant on the human will that has an influence for the origination, modification or termination of legal relations".

Actus juridicialis

For the Germans a legal act is "an expression or manifestation of the will addressed to create a legal effect (origination, modification, defense or termination of some legal relation) and proper to do so according to positive law".

Actus juridicialis

The legal acts: legitimate or ilegitimate, just or unjust, legal or ilegal, unilateral or bilateral, inter vivos (between the living) and mortis causa (by reason of death), gratuitous or onerous, formal or informal. The acts according to the positive law were formerly divided into en stricti iuris and bonae fidei (of strict law and of good faith).

Actus juridicialis

The stricti iuris were the ones that interpreted strictly, for instance, the ones of special usefulness.

Actus juridicialis

The ones of bonae fidei, interpreted according to equity, such as the ones of common usefulness; so the difference was that in the ones of strict law adherence had to be to the literal meaning of the words used by the parties, as oppossed to the ones of good faith, where the intention had to be observed. This distinction has lost all of its significance at present.

Actus rerum

Act of the things. Exprssion that in the courts of the ancient Rome was equivalent to what is now referred to as in the curia as business days or periods, since it indicated the periods when the courts worked. The days when pagan parties were considered holiday.

Ad aliquem

Approach to anyone.

Ad beate vivendum

In order to live happily

Ad bestias damnare

Convicted to be eaten by the beasts

Ad captandum vulgus

To win or attract the populace

Ad cautelam

As precaution. Acquit ad cautelam is used in ecclesistical trials upon acquittal of the accused when there is doubt as to whether he has committed a crime.Under the Roman law it was also referred to as "derogatory covenant ad cautelam" the one of the testator under his testament, expressing his will that no other testament done in the future be valid, as an specific word o sign was not included.

Ad certam diem

At a fixed date.

Ad coetum geniti sumus

We are breeded for an encounter. Saying of Lucio Anneo Séneca (s. IV A.D.) to express the social nature of human beings.

Ad complendum

To end. General title given to the final performance of anofficiate, one or more performances accompanied by the versicles of the diaca or celebrant.

Ad corpus

In the body.

Ad decem milia annorum

In ten thousand years.

Ad frigora atque aestus vitandos

In order to avoid cold and heat.

Ad fundum o in fudum

To visit a farm.

Ad futuram memoriam

To remain for posterity or the future.

Ad gloriam

For the glory; and ironically, for nothing.

Ad graecos, Rex bene, fiant mandata calendas

Good King, put the calendas in order. Hex metro used by Elizabeth of England to answer a claim made by Philip I of Spain

Ad hanc diem

Up to date.

Ad hastam

At public auction.

Ad hoc

What is done or said for a specific purpose. Ex professo, to this thing.

Ad hominem

An ad hominen argument is the one that confuses an adversary with his own words. This term also refers to the reasoning that affects severily the interests of the person one is dealing with.

Ad honorem o ad honores

It applies to the honorary position with no payment nor exercise, in which the person holding it does not pursue any financial purpose but the honor and pleasure of holding it. It is used ironically to refer to the charges and inconviniences the person in that position suffers without getting any benefits.

Ad hostes contendere

March against the enemies.

Ad huc stat

Freemasonry expression, engraved as a motto under a broken column.

Ad huc sub iudice lis est

The case is still in the judge’s hands. It means that a matter was not solved or that there is no solution for an issue yet.

Ad hunc modum

In this way.

Ad irato

Expression used in music to explain that a composition must be played with anger, for instance, quickly.

Ad iudicem dicere

Speak before the judge.

Ad libitum


Ad maiorem Dei gloriam

Used for the first time in the Canones et Decreta aecumenici concilii Tridentini (1542-60). It is sometimes used for other purposes, like ad maiorem rei litterariae gloriam, Ad maiorem regis gloriam (to the greater glory of the king).

Ad marginem

On one side. Reference or note made in that section of the writing, work, etc.

Ad me redeat oportet

It is better that it comes back to me.

Ad meliorem fortunam

Equal to: for better circumstances.

Ad metalla

This is the phrase used to designate one of the most cruel punishments applied to those who professed Christianism. Calistrato (Athen’s speaker of the IV century BC admired by Demosthenes) describes it as the maxima mortis sentence (maximum death sentence). In ministerium Metallicorum (in the ministry of the metallic) was the phrase used to express the destiny of the condemned.

Ad modum

According to way and manner.

Ad nauseam usque

Until provoking nauseas.

Ad nihilum redigere


Ad notam

Remark, note.

Ad notitiam

Up to what is known, up to knowledge.

Ad nutum

At pleasure, at will.

Ad omnia summa

For all the biggest things.

Ad patres

Towards fathers. To meet ancestors.

Ad pedem litterae


Ad perpetuam

Forever. Ad perpetuam rei memoriam (for perpetual memory of the issue).

Ad praesens ova cras pullis sunt meliora

Today’s eggs are more valuable than tomorrow’s hens. In English: a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

Ad probationem

For the purposes of evidence.

Ad quem

To whom. It is used to express, in legal terminology, the fact of giving until it is counted. On the contrary, the expression a quo is used to designate the fact of giving from what it is counted.

Ad rem

Equal to the case, issue. In English: straight to the point. It is used to call the attention of an interlocutor about the main issue.

Ad rem publicam

Start to deal with the public interests

Ad sollicitandas civitates

To take possession of the cities

Ad sueta portula

The customary door

Ad summum

To the most

Ad unguem

Till perfection. Figurative expression taken by Horace (65-8 B.C.), from the habit of workers to polish with the nail.

Ad urbem esse

To be close to the city

Ad usum

To the use of. The ceremony ad usum is celebrated

Ad verbum

Close to the letter

Ad vocem

To this word…it should be observed that, this reminds me. Similar to the Spanish: by the way.

Adde parum parvo, magnus acervus erit

Add a little to a little and you will have a great amount. Equivalent to an old saying:poquito a poco hila la vieja el capo, or many fews make a lot.

Addendum eodem est ut

To this still must be added that...

Addicentibus auspiciis

Having the auspices been favourable.

Addicentibus auspiciis

The auspices having been favorable.

Addictio bonorum

Adjudication of property, done by the Master (teacher) to the one having offered a higher price in compulsory sales of properties for unfulfillment of duties (see Bonorum venditio)

Addictio bonorum libertatum servandorum causa

Transfer of the property in order to preserve freedom. This expression is used to designate the allocation of the vacant succession to a third party or a slave who was claiming it, by posting a bond to guarantee payment to creditors, this was introduced so that the manumissions established in a will could take effect.

Addictio debitoris

Debtor's arrest. In Roman Law the insolvent debtor who had been allocated to the creditor in order that the latter could collect his debt, was called addictus. Initially, the condemnatio (sentence) delivered by the judge did not confer any rights upon the debtor’s property, but upon the debtor. In case debtor had neither paid nor presented a guarantor (vindex) within thirty days after the sentence, he could be allocated to the creditor if the latter filed the manus injectio, thus becoming the addictus, a term that comes from addictio (allocation) the magistrate ordered. The XII Tables established in detail the weight of the chains that could be used and how much food could be given to him while he was in custody at the creditor’s house. The Addictus and the slave were not on an equal footing, as the addictus was free, he could reach a compromise with his creditor and pay. The XII Tables obliged the creditor to take the addictus to the public market three consecutive times during this period of 60 days (tertiis nundinis) and say aloud his name, his debt and its amount in order to find any third party who may be willing to free him. If after that sixty-day term neither the addictus nor any third party had paid the debt, the creditor may sell the addictus abroad as a slave (trans Tiberim) or put him to death, acquiring title to his property, to which he succeeded by virtue of capitis deminutio (statute of limitations, loss of civil rights) in the first case, and of death, in the second one. Furthermore, considering the existence of more that one creditor, the XII Tables stated that (notwithstanding the possibility of selling him and sharing the price and his property) they may also share his body: partis secanto. If plus minusve in fraude esto (proportionally, if more or less there was fraud), there being no issue in one of them taking more than another one (Table III, De rebus creditis). Extensive discussions were held regarding whether this text must be interpreted literally or not; the affirmative answer being the safest. Nevertheless, it must be said that this procedure was not applied much, Girard points that, undoubtedly, the most used practice was to extend custody until full payment was made. The debtor’s addictio is based on the nexum (obligation, sale contract); for that reason when the nexum disappeared, the addictio became weaker. The Poetelia Papiria law, enacted in Rome in 428, softened the addicti’s situation by prohibiting creditors from putting the debtor to death or selling him and by abolishing the 60-day term for detention; the lex Coloniae Genitivae Iuliae still mentions the chains, but not slavery or death. In general terms, it can be stated that the debtor’s addicitio was replaced by prison, which in later Law was applied in State prisons and by the proscriptio et venditio bonorum (proscription and sale of goods). This institution was not proper of Roman Law, modern investigations discovered that the Salic law contained similar provisions to those of the XII Tables and that the same happened with Scandinavian laws.

Addictio debitoris

Addictio debitoris

Addictio debitoris

Addictio in diem

This is the term used to refer to an agreement ancillary to the sale contract, by virtue of which the parties agree that the seller will have, until a certain date, the right to assign the object to another person who may make a better offer than that one agreed upon in the sale contract. The formula used for this agreement, as the Digest mentions, was: Ille fundus, centum esto tibi emptus, nisi si quis intra kalendas januarias proximas meliorem conditionem fecerit quo res a domino habeat (that fund you bought for a hundred, except you receive a better offer on the first day of January, in which case the owner's object is divided). It is an archaic formula that, as it can be clearly noticed, is only illustrative.

Addictio in diem

The nature of this agreement is considered from two points of view: as if its aim was to make the sale conditional and as a cancellation agreement, maintaining the sale pure and simple. This last point of view is the most important one and the one that should prevail in case of doubt; and considering the addictio in diem effects from this point of view, they can be reduced to the following: in order that the agreement could be enforced, an offer better than the one of the original sale had to be formally made to the seller. If that was the case, the seller may claim its enforcement but he had to serve notice to the original purchaser, who, in turn, may keep the object offering equal advantages; if the purchaser did not use this formula, the seller may claim the enforcement of the agreed upon agreement by virtue of the actio venditio por la praescriptis verbis (prewriten words).

Addictio litis

In the sense of legislations, it meant the loss of the case on the part of the non-appearing party in judicio (at Trial), having waited for him past midday.

Addictio rei

Allocation made by a Magistrate of a thing to someone who was claiming it, when there was no opposition on the other part, in the system of legis actiones (legal actions).

Adficere aliquem laetitia, muneribus

Make someone happy, give gifts to someone.

Adligare scelere se

To get involved in a crime.

Adplicatio ad patronum

Attachment to the patron. Formula used by original Roman Law to express the relationship created by a servant towards his patron, when, in turn, the latter accepted him in his service (susceptio clientis: client’s acceptance).

Adsentio tibi ut

I agree with you that

Adsum amicis

I help my friends

Adulescentibus favetur

Protection to the young is given.

Adulta virgo

Young already matured



Adversis musis

With scarce talent

Adverso amne

Against the current;upstream

Adverso flumine

Against the current; taking back the river

Adversus hostem aeterna auctoritas esto

Therefore, eternal authority to the enemy. Principle under the XII Tables XII which was misinterpreted, and which in fact it only prohinited the foreigner to take by statute of limitations the things belonging to a Roman citizen. The term hostis has the idea of guest.

Advocatorum error litigantibus non nocet

The mistake of the lawyers does not hurt the litigants. Unfortunately, modern legislators did not follow this equitable rule of the roman law.

Advocatus diaboli

Evil’s lawyer.


Prostrate oneself.

Aedificare de suo

Build his expenses.

Aeger morbo gravi

Seriously sick.

Aequalium, adeo superiorum intolerans

Unable to bear his equals.

Aequam memento servare mentem

Remember to always keep a perfect equal character. Taken from the III Ode of the book II, first volume of Horace (65-8 B.C.), frequently repeated by different authors.

Aeque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aeque

What is advantageous for the rich and the poor.

Aequitas relligio judicantis

Equity is the religion of the one who judges. These are words of the Digest, which point out that the laws must be interpreted, when possible, in a manner favorable to the accused.

Aequitas sequitur legem

Equity should accompany the law. All the laws should be applied precisely.

Aequitatem verbis

Contradict justice with words.

Aequo animo

With calm character.

Aequo pulsat pede

Hurts with equal foot. Taken from the judgment of Horace (65-8 B.C.) in one of his odes: pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauporum tabernas regumque turres (pale death hurts with equal foot the huts of the poor and the palaces of the kings); or as written by Iriarte: 1) death with equal feet; 2) measures the strawy hut; 3) and the real palaces.

Aerarium privatum

Special treasure.

Aerarium sacrum o sacrae largitiones

Holy treasure or sacred grants.

Aerata securis

Bronze axe.

Aere alieno obrui

To be oppressed with debts.

Aere perennius

More long lasting than bronze. It is used to indicate that a play is intended to live for ever, based on its great worth.

Aes alienum

Debt. Name given by the Romans to the general debts, but especially to money debts.

Aes debitorem leve, gravius inimicum facit

The small debt is not a debt, and the big one creates an enemy against us.

Aes equestre

Equestrian debt. This was the name given in Rome to the amount of money given by the State to provide each horseman with two horses.

Aes et libram

Of the copper and the scale. Popular proceeding under the roman law, so much known, that there was no contract that failed to submit itself to the copper and scale.

Aes hordearium

Barley related debt. Name of the tax created by Tarquinius the old over the widows and the orphans, in order to contribute to the military expenses, and specially, in order to feed the horses paid by the State.

Aes manuarium

Money earned in the games. The names originates from the fact that it was collected with the hand.

Aes militare

Military wage or payment. Portion of the tax that was levied in Rome over the persons released from the military service which was intended for the payment of salaries.

Aes rude

Generic term given to the copper bars that were used by the Romans as metallic instrument in the changes.

Aes triplex circa pectus

A threefold bronze around the chest. These are the words of Horace (Ode III) to describe the daring of the first sailors.

Aes uxorium

Debt of the married woman. Tribute established by Marcus Furius Camilo so called the second founder of Rome (IV century B.C.) to the single men and obliged them to marry the widows of the citizens that were killed for the country. It seems to be an application of what was established by Tarquino the old, over the widows, maiden and orphans.

Aeschines in Demosthenem invehitur, at quam rhetorice

Esquines attacks Demosthenes, but ¡with so much rhetoric! Expressions.

Aestimatio litium

Evaluation of the punishment.

Aetas puerilis

The childhood; generation.

Age libertate decembris

Act freely as in December. It refers to the saturnalia parties celebrated in December and during which the greater excesses were permitted.

Agere aliquid; nihil

Do something; no to do anything.

Agere hiemem sub tectis

Spend the winter with shelter.

Agere nihil aliud nisi

To do nothing else than.

Agere otia

Live on laziness.

Agere pacem

Live on peace.

Agitur de parricidio

A parricide case is ventilated

Agnosco veteris, vestigia flammae

Where there was fire, there is ember. Words used by Dido, widow of Siqueo, to confess her sister she feels for Eneas the passion she feels for her first husband. (Virgilius, Aeneid, book IV).

Agri divisionem

The division of a territory.

Ahora bien, un antecedente falso evidentemente que no puede tener fuerza en ningún caso y, por tanto, dicho argumento no prueba nada. Así, se trata de probar que los ángulos de un triángulo exceden a un recto. Se prueba con tal demostración que al mi

Ala equitum

Troop of chivalry.

Albescere lux


Alea iacta est

The die is cast; uncertainty.

Alicui aliquid (o) de aliqua re

Narrate somebody something.

Alicui aliquid vitio

Something to somebody as defect.

Alicui bene dicere

Speak well of somebody.

Alicui damnum

Damage to somebody.

Alicui dicto

To the commands of somebody.

Alicui diem necis destinare

Set the date of somebody’s execution.

Alicui facultatem dare (o facere):

Give somebody the opportunity.

Alicui gratias referre:

Give somebody signs of recognition.

Alicui male:

Insult somebody.

Alicui molestiam:

Dissatisfaction to somebody.

Alicui munera

Gifts to somebody.

Alicui nomen do

I give somebody a name.

Alicui rei nomen dare

To give a name to a thing.

Alicuius rei

Of something.

Alicuius rei memoriam deponere

Let forget the memory of something.

Alii aliter tradunt

Some tell it in a way and others tell it in another,

Aliis magis quam aliis

To some better than to others.

Alio atque alio

Here and there.

Alio modo

In a different manner.

Alio pacto


Aliqua re uti et frui

Use and enjoy the properties.

Aliqua re; de aliqua re o in aliqua

Of something for something.


For some time.

Aliquem a loco, ab aliquo

Distance somebody from something, from somebody.

Aliquem a tergo

To one from the back.

Aliquem aliqua re

To somebody of something.

Aliquem aliquam rem

To someone a thing.

Aliquem civitate

To one with citizenship right.

Aliquem clamore

To one with clamor.

Aliquem contra (in) aliquem

To somebody against someone.

Aliquem crucis

Free someone from his grief.

Aliquem de aliqua re

Keep somebody ignorant about something.

Aliquem furti

To somebody for theft.

Aliquem heredem

Heir to somebody.

Aliquem in conspectum Caesaris

Somebody before the Caesar.

Aliquem in exilium


Aliquem in murum

To somebody on the wall; excite to the full; strengthen.

Aliquem iniuria

Somebody with defamations.

Aliquem invehens

Free from somebody’s attacks.

Aliquem laudabimus

To someone from the praise.

Aliquem leges

Teach someone the laws.

Aliquem longis epistulis

To someone with long letters.

Aliquem male habere

Mistreat somebody.

Aliquem pecunia

To one with money.

Aliquem pro amico habere

Consider someone as a friend.

Aliquem virgis

To someone with beatings with a stick.

Aliquid alicui (o ab alicuo)

Remove something from somebody.

Aliquid fidei alicuius

Something to the loyalty of somebody.

Aliquid in bonis

Something among the properties.

Aliquid magnum

Something big.

Aliquid pignori

Something as a pledge.

Aliquid sorte

To die a cast.

Aliquis de militibus

One of the soldiers.

Aliquo loco

Sail from a place.

Aliquod anni

A certain number of years.

Aliter atque aliter

In another way and still in another.

Aliter sentis atque dicis

You do not speak as you think.

Alius alia via discessit

Each one took a different way.

Alius atque

In another way that.

Alma pax

Benefactress peace.

Almus ager

Fertile field.

Alquem otiosum

To one inactive.

Alquid alicui rei

Something to the contour of something.

Alte cinetus

Determined man.

Alternis diebus

One day yes and another not.

Altiora murorum

The highest of the walls.


Height of the hill, depth of a river, greatness of soul.


I beg you.


A case is discussed, is made known.

Amicus certus

Tested friend.

Amore alicuius

For somebody’s love.

Amurcam cum aqua

Dilute oil in the water; join, mix up.

Ancipiti Marte

With uncertain success.


Fall to pieces, stoop to.

Annos natus maior quadraginta

Older than forty years old.

Annus locuples frugibus

Wheat plentiful year.

Ante annum

A year before.

Ante hostium adstare

Keep in front of the door.

Ante tempus

Before the desired moment.

Apud aram

At the foot of the pulpit.

Apud maiores nostros

At our forefathers´ time.

Apud Platonem est dictum

It is said in Plato’s work.

Aram sanguine

Spring blood on the pulpit, befog, mist.

Argentum deterius est auro

Silver is inferior to gold.

Argumentum a pari (o) a simili

Argument of equality. It is the one based on reasons of similarity and equality between the proposed fact and from the one who stems from it.

Argumentum ad crumenam

Stock argument. It is raised for getting what is wanted with money when reason is lacking.

Argumentum ad ignorantiam

It refers to the argument proper to the ignorance of the person with whom we are discussing.

Argumentum ad iudicium

Argument of trial. It refers to the one that appeals to common sense.

Argumentum ad terrorem

Argument of fear. It is the one that points more to sensitivity than to intelligence, it is used a lot in oratory.

Argumentum ad verecundiam

Argument of discretion. The one who provokes the respect owed to the authority.

Argumentum baculinum

Argument of sticks. It is used in those cases when there being no reason, the answer is with a bludgeon, based on the law of the jungle.

Arma per pactionem tradere:

Surrender, give up the arms under a pact.

Arma pugnae

The arms for the fight.

Armis jus suum

His rights for the arms.

Artificium comicum

Comedian talent.

Artium magister

Master in arts. In ancient times it referred to the one who was a master in liberal arts, and at present to the one in fine arts.

Arva Neptunia

Neptune plains; the sea.

At contra (o) at vero

But, on the contrary.

At enim

But it is that...

Atque adeo, atque etiam, atque adeo etiam

And still, and even, what is more.

Atque idem ego hoc contenido

And in addition I pretend this.


But with all that; however.

Auctorem esse alicuius interficiendi

Cause the death of somebody.


I hear; understand.

Aut certe, aut saltem

Or as a minimum, or at least

Aut denique

Or at last.

Aut fortasse

Or, probably or maybe.

Aut insanit homo aut versus facit

The man is either crazy or writes poems.

Aut omnino

Or at least.

Aut potius

Or better.

Aut sane

Or if desired.

Aut summum

Or at best.

Aut... aut etiam

Or... or even.

Avaritiam pecunia

The greed with money.

Aveo scire quid agas

I am anxious to know what you do.

Barbarus hic ego sum quia non intelligor ull

Here I am the barbarian, since nobody understands me. Taken from Publius Ovidius Naso (43 B.C.-18 A.D.) in Sad, book V, elegy X.

Beatus ille qui procul negotiis

Blessed the one who lives away from business. First line of the second epode of Horace (65-8 B.C.), where the poet draws a charming picture of country life.

Bellum nec timendum nec provocandum

We should not fear the war, but either make it. These were the words used by the philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) to designate the social state prior to the civilization.

Bene existimare

To have a good opinion about.

Bene mane

Good as a lie.

Bene merentibus

For the good service. Bene meriti. Who served faithfully.

Bene moratus

Of good habits.

Bene novisse aliquem

To know somebody well.

Bene peritus

Very competent.

Bene sit tibi

Good luck.

Beneficia non obtruduntur

Benefits do not oblige us. It is a legal aphorism which means that the one who received benefits from another, is not obliged to do his will.

Beneficio adligare

Oblige oneself based on a favor.

Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere

Acceptance of a benefit is equivalent to selling ones freedom.

Beneficium alicui

Do somebody a favor.

Beneficium in aliquem conferre

Benefit somebody.

Bis deni dies

Two times ten days.

Bis experti

Instructed by a double experience.

Bis quini viri

The members of the council.

Bonae frugis homo

Man of all talents.

Boni consulere aliquid

Consider something as good, to be satisfied with.

Boni, improbi

The good, the bad.

Bonis quod bene fit, haud perit

The service rendered to the satisfied people, never is useless.

Bono animo esse in

To be well disposed to.

Bonorum venditio

Try to sell the properties.

Bonus erga homines

Generous with men.

Brevis consulendi est occasio

It is short the moment appropriate for a decision.


From the Latin burgus, from the Goth baurgs. Small village or small population dependent on another main one. Formerly castle or fort of small size. Taken in this sense, it seems to derive from the Greek purgos (tower) and it is already used by Flavio Renato Vegecio (IV century) who textually says: castellum parvulum quem burgum vocat (small castle called burgo).

Caducae hereditates

Farms without owners as a consequence of certain laws.

Caeca pericula

Unforeseen Dangers.

Caecitatem alicuius

Somebody’s blindness.

Caelo albente

At the crack of dawn.

Caelo sereno

For a calm sky.

Caelo vesperascente

In the evening.

Calor se frangit

The heat weakens.

Calvisius Taurus

Greek platonic of the II century, during Antoninus Pio´s reign, master and friend of Aulas Gellius, who left some details about the live of this character. Native of Berito (Beirut), taught platonic philosophy in Athens, striving to stress the points on which he differs from the points of Aristotle and the stoic school. He studied the penal law, and defended the need of the punishments, since he believed they recuperated the convict, revenged the offence against the society and served as example. No piece of his work is kept.

Canes latrant

Dogs bark.

Capita aut navim

Name of a popular game between the Romans, equivalent to head and tail. The roman coin had on its reverse side the bust of Jano. (Roman god of the doors) and on the reverse the bow of a ship. The Greeks had a similar game, with the exception that instead of a coin they used a black shell for one of the sides, that they threw to the air screaming: day or night.

Capitale odium

Deadly hostility.



Capite census

Name given in Rome as from the incorporation of Servius Tullius (famous roman king who is said to have reigned from 578 to 534 B.C.) to the citizens without land property. Manual workers also belonged to this category, with the exception of the carpenters, and the musicians, the latter having to serve in the army made two separate centuries.The liberties were also included under that category since they were unable to be under the other categories. Later, under Apio Claudio Cego, in 312 B.C. this name was given to the citizens whose estate was so small that amounted to 12.000 copper coins and not being able to be included under the ones having properties they were included under a separate census list of the classes under a separate century. They were exempted from taxes, did not serve in delegations and had no active and passive voting right. Earlier on the II century B.C. those rights were granted to the most affluent of them, and as from the year 107 were applied to the rest.


The lost of the civil status (other times, till death).

Causa penes iudicem est

The action is in the hands of the judge.

Cave festines

Do not hurry.

Cave ne festines

Keep from hurrying.

Cavere insidias

Keep from ambush.

Cavere tabulas

Tell me the documents.

Cedo reliqua

Tell me the rest of the things.

Celeberrima populi romani gratulatio

Congratulations from the roman people mass.

Celerius omni opinione

Quicker than expected.

Censu prohibere

Not to accept somebody in the citizens census.

Centuriata lex

Centuriated law, voted at the elections for centuries.

Cernere animo

To represent in the imagination.

Certior fieri de re ab aliquo

To be made wise and learnt on something by somebody.

Cervicibus suis rem publicam sustinere

Carry on his back the burden of the government.

Ceteri alius alio

The others left each to their way.

Circa bonas artes socordia

Disinterest regarding useful knowledge.

Circa eamdem horam

Towards the same hour.

Circa forum

In the surroundings of the forum.

Circa murum

A place next to the wall.

Circiter haec loca

Next to these locations.

Circiter meridiem

Towards midday.

Circum amplector

Cover, surround.


Circumstance. It refers to the accident of time, place, manner joined to the substance of any fact or saying. Circumstance are those facts, generally accidental, that due to their close relationship with the others have an effect on the legal effects of this others; and so the aged said that circunstantiae magnam judicat iuris diversitatem (the circumstances indicate the greater diversity of the law). The importance is different under civil and criminal law.

Citato gradu

At fast step.

Citius pubescunt, citius senescunt

The earliest they enter puberty, the earlier they grow old. It is said of women.

Cito maturum, cito putridum

Quickly matures, quickly rots. Very explanatory phrase.

Citra usum

Without practice, without reaching.

Civile bellum, jus civile

Civil war, civil law.

Civili animo ferre aliquid

Bear something with gentleness.


Civil, civic. Referring to the private relationships and interests with regards the status of the persons, family legal regulation and character of the properties.


Citizen. The one who possesses rights of citizenship, or who enjoys civil rights. Citizen condition, quality and right. Political bond that indicates the relationship existing between the State and the individuals included therein.


Citizenship is obtained by birth or choice. The first is for ius soli or ius sanguinis (right of solo or right of blood), the first being found in the law of association and the second in the law of the individual. The citizenship by choice may have different degrees: sometimes it may appear expressly by letter of nature or naturalization, and some other times in a less express manner, but always as a consequence of a fact of will.

Civitate Romanus

Rome for the citizen rights.

Clam esse

Keep in secret.

Claudite jam rivos, pueri

Young men, close the rivers. Virgilius, at the end of his third eclogue, in order to warn his shepherds that it was time to stop singing, he says to them: Close or seize now the rivers, young men, since the fields have already drank enough water. This Latin poem is used nowadays with the same meaning, to warn that is enough of one thing.


Tax officer, the one who exercises coercion. Under law it is synonym of force used over people.

Codees o Código repetitae praelationis:

Collection of imperial constitutions, made after the order of Justinian and which is part of the third of the four sections making up the Corpus Juris Civilis. Causes: 1) after the publication of the Justinian Code, 50 constitutions were made to decide on doubtful points and 250 constitutions modifying the current law which were not included under the Code; 2) as a consequence of said constitutions and the Digest publication (530) taking them into account, the legal harmony existing between the code and the original Code which was the manifestation of the law prior to Justinian, disappeared. In order to reestablish said harmony a complete revision of the Justinian Code was necessary. Author and age: The author of the Code was a commission designated by Justinian on the year 534 which consisted of Tribonian, questor of the imperial palace, Doroteo, professor of Berito´s school and the legal officials in the prefecture of the imperium capital, Menas, Constantinus and John. It consists of twelve books, subdivided into 765 titles within which 4652 Constitutions are included in general including the designation of the prince making it and the person or corporation to which it is addressed (inscriptio, registration), the place and the date when it was approved (subscriptio, subscription).


Code, Latin term variant of caudex: trunk of tree. This term has a general meaning that is important in the history of the legal literature and that afterwards received a special use by the jurists. Codex is opposed to liber (book). It was the papyrus or skin where it was written and that was rolled (volumina); the Codex was the collection of closed clapboards (and, after being the use of the papyrus generalized, of pages of this), it was intended to be opened and not rolled (they were also of papyrus, since Saint Jerome (331-420) and Domitius Ulpianus (170-223) "codice chartacei" remember them and there are a dozen of them). Liber and codex prevailed simultaneously for a long time. The oldest parchment codex that are known are not older than the III or IV century of our age. The Liber term loses its original meaning, and designates the collection of a number of pages or copybooks inferior to the codex. On the V century the codex started to be used in a special sense by the jurists. In the Law of Cites of the year 426 the term docicum refers, in the opinion of Rodolfo Sohm (1841-1917), to collections and according the majority of the interpreters, to manuscripts, this later term being confirmed by Ammiano Marcelino (330-400), who applies that word for the works (books) of the old authors. Justinian called codees the collection of the opinions of the jurists and of the imperial constitutions. The Code as a collection of laws and constitutions, tends to have the name of the prince who ordered it to be made, of the author who made it, or the subject it deals with. In a vernacular and historical sense code means every codification of legal precepts; but in a proper and present sense a code is the only law governing all the positive law of a village in some of its branches (civil, commercial, criminal, etc.) with subject, plan, era unity, as a general rule, of before, that is, of positive law in some of its branches, reduced to system, natural plan and artistic structure. The Teodosian Code and the Justinian Code are known. The word code was given to many legal bodies, which are not so, in the scientific sense of the word as in: code of Manu, code of Alaric, code of Euric, code of Adrian or Codees Canonum (V. Dionisio), Hermogenian code, Gregorian code, Justinian code, code repetitae praelationis.

Código Azul

Legislation of Louis XIV and Charles II reigns which consisted of extremely severed laws applied by anglosaxon colonists of North America.

Código Negro

Collection of provisions passed in 1685, governing slavery in North America and setting forth the rights of slaves and libertis. The term Black code generally applies to the collection of laws regulating slavery in the southern states of North America.

Coelo tonantem credimus Jovem

We believed in Jupiter when the sky thundered, says Horace in his ode V, book III, in order to express that many people do not take care of themselves to prevent future risks. To this Latin phrase corresponds to the Spanish: Not the remember Saint Barbara till it thunders.


It consisted in a fake sale (originally should have been real) that the pater familias did of the woman to the man by means of the mancipatio. In addition, the mancipatio causa matrimonii (emancipation due to marriage) differed from the ordinary one, since if the latter was established the dignity of the woman would lessen. While in the ordinary mancipatio the active subject was the man, in the coemptio was the woman (therefore, the books said that it was the woman the one who did the coemptio with the husband), if the woman was sui iuris, consent of the guardian or pater was only required on the one hand, on the other hand in the coemptio, both spouses mutually questioned, and even though there are some authors who affirm that the husband mentioned the same formula as the purchaser under the ordinary emancipation, this is not acceptable since the woman was not under (servile condition)

Cogere agmen

Close the track

Cogitare de lana sua

Undertake his issues.

Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur

The thought is not subject to punishment. Legal aphorism by which it is meant that the criminal thought not accompanied by any action which constitutes a crime, is not subject to liability under the civil law.

Cogito, ergo sum

I think, therefore I am. Aphorism of Descartes (1596-1650), who took it from the one of St. Augustine: si fallor, sum: if I am mistaken, I exist; and which served as a basis to found his philosophical system.

Cognomen sapientis habere

Be called as nickname “the wise”.

Cohortes ad munitiones

The cohorts towards the entrenchment.

Coire societatem sceleris cum alicuo

Participate with someone in a mob (collaborate) for the crime.

Colloquio diem

A day for an interview.

Colubrem in sinu fovere

Bring up a snake in her chest; it is equivalent to the Spanish: bring up ravens and they will take out your eyes.

Comitas gentium

Hospitality of the people. Under international law it is equivalent to courtesy, friendship, kindness or mutual interest of the nations based on the relation of the parties. This principle serves as basis to many rules of international law not deriving from natural justice and not included under arrangements therefore saying that they are observed ob comitatem (due to politeness); as the ones observed upon the visits of sovereigns, receipt of diplomatic agents, or the duties imposed by civilization. Compliance with the comitas gentium rules is according to Pascual Fiore (1837-1914) a moral duty of the States.

Commisit scelus atque etiam gloriatur se commisisse

Committed a crime and even boasts on it.

Communi obnoxiae

Related to a common crime.

Compelle intrare

Obliged to enter. It is equivalent to the vernacular phrase: hang by force.

Competencia ratione loci

Jurisdiction as to venue.

Compluribus partibus

Of many parts.

Componitur orbis regis ad exemplum

The inferior follow the example and imitate the customs of the superior. It is equivalent to the Spanish phrase: as the abbot sings the sexton responds.

Compos culpae


Compos mentis

That is in his right mind.

Compos voti

Which saw his wishes come through

Composita oratio

Speech made with art.

Composito vultu

With tranquil face.

Compressis labris

Having the lips closed.


Compromise. Considered by the Roman law as an obligation of fact, not by the agreement of the parties but by the acceptance of the arbitrator, who the magistrate obliged to comply with his function by virtue of a an action in factum, as in this age the compromise is a praetorian agreement (receptum arbitrii), which extinguished by its fulfillment and the death of the ribero. In the Justinian age it turned into a lawful agreement in the two cases indicated in the cited place (from which only the last one survives in the right of the Novels), therefore it gave rise to the action ex stipulatu or the action in factum, depending on their force deriving from the stipulation or the confirmation the parties did of the arbitration award.

Con dicha locución se quiere indicar que el hombre de las edades primitivas se sintió inclinado a adorar lo que admiraba y, sobre todo, lo que le daba miedo o le causaba pavor; de aquí la adoración de las fuerzas de la naturaleza personificados en un

Con el postliminio se evitaba la extensión definitiva de las relaciones jurídicas del ciudadano hecho prisionero, las que renacían cuando éste volvía; pero continuaban en pie las mismas consecuencias para el caso de que el prisionero muriese en su ca

Con los pactos non nuda se formaron tres grupos por los autores, atendiendo a la fuente de donde procedió el reconocimiento de la acción que producían a saber:

Concedes multo hoc esse gravius

You will admit that this case is much more serious.

Concilium plebis

Elections in tribes.

Concilium populi

Elections in curia or centuries.


Accord. Treaty or agreement on ecclesiastical issues that the Government of a State enters into with the Holy See. They are so since: 1) they are not public treaties between two equal powers; 2)they are about spiritual cases; 3) they are not made with a temporary pontiff but the Holy See; 4) the Pope can revoke them without the assent of the other party if under the circumstances they are contrary to the Church.

Conditio sine qua non

Condition without which no. It is understood that without the condition, a thing is not done.


It was the formula by which marriages were holy therefore being a truly religious marriage. It consisted of three parts: 1) Traditio or delivery of the woman to the husband by her pater familias; 2) Deductio in domo, direction of the woman from the father’s house to the one of the husband this direction being made with majesty, carrying a trim of flowers on the woman’s head, which was covered with a white mantle; 3) the real confarreatio, religious proceeding having a legal nature which was carried out with a surprising formality and old ceremonies. It took place probably during its first times in the holy place of the curies and, afterwards in the husband’s address, being supposed there were special days for its celebration, since the Romans divided them into fastos and nefastos. The main ceremonies were: the offering of a flour cake to Jupiter (farreum panis) and the mentioning of certain holy words. The offering was made by the isolated pontiff of the flamen - dialis; the couple being sat in joined seats, and having their heads covered by the skin of the beer having been sacrificed and the pontiff distributed the farreum to them. The holy phrases (verba certa et solemnia: certian and formal words) are evidenced by Ulpianus and Gaius, but we have not heard of the formula. The pontiff would say the husband: pater familias esse volet? (do you want to be a family father?) and to the woman: mater familias esse volet?. Dantz believes these words were said after the offering since Gaius talks before this offering.


The confarreatio was special for the patrician; the children of the marriage verified by the confarreatio were named patrini et matrini, and could only perform the functions of reges sacrorum and flamines maiores the ones having born from this type of marriage.

Congestis telis

Under a rain of darts.


Conspirators, plotters.


Consanguinity. Bond, union, deriving from consanguinity, of many persons deriving from the same root or trunk. Under the law it refers to the relationship deriving from the father (then, the brothers of the same father and different mothers, while uterine is the name given to the ones of the same mother and different fathers). Consanguinity can be legitimate (lawful), and illegitimate (unlawful), and this later natural o no natural, according to the persons and the fact from which they derive. Under the roman law it was equivalent to the cognatio, but as to its effects it was not different to the cognatio, it was only more lasting, since it did not distinguish from the capitis diminutio minima. It continued endlessly till the infinite. In collateral line and during the first times it prevented the marriage till the sixth degree; but this severity disappeared before the end of the second Punic war and even the prohibition between first cousins (consobrini); was rejected at the end of the Republic. Under the empire the marriage between collaterals was permitted, unless one of them was only one degree from the main trunk, (brother and sister, uncle and niece, aunt and nephew, etc.), however this rule had two exceptions, to wit: 1) the one that permitted the marriage between the uncle from the side of the father and the niece, as a consequence of a counseling senate created so that Claudio was able to marry Agrippina, and 2) it was prohibited again, by influence of the Christianism, the marriage between first cousins; but these two exception disappeared, the first in the year 342 and the second was annulled under Justinian.

Consans pax

Inalterable peace.

Conserta acies

Hand to hand combat.

Consertum vocare


Consessu omnium

Related to unanimous assent.

Considerare ne

Try to avoid that.

Considerare ut

Patrol that.

Consilii non fraudulenti nulla obligatio

Rule of the Digest which means than nobody is responsible for the damage that might derive from the advice given, unless it was given by fraud and deceit.

Consilio et manu (Consilio manuque)

With ability and action.

Consilio uti

Adopt a piece of advice

Consilium capere

Create the purpose of.

Conspirare ne

To reach an agreement to prevent that.


Constitution. Action and effect of constituting. Essence and quality of the thing that constitutes as so. Government type or system governing each State; theory and practice of nations` governance. Law or fundamental code that constitutes the basis of said system. Under Constitutional law, every State needs and always has a specific organization by virtue of which manifests and performs its functions. This organization is determined by a rule having legal nature and designated as Constitution, therefore defining it from that point of view, as the rule or legal rule that determines the fundamental organization of the State.

Consuetudinem (acusativo de consuetudo

A custom; approve.

Consulere crudeliter in cives (o) de civibus

Treat the citizens with cruelty.

Consummatum est

Everything consumes. Last words of Christ. It refers to what causes the final termination of something, for instance: The sea battle of Lepanto was the consummatum est of the power of the crescent.

Contendit falsa iis esse delata

Asserts that were given false information.

Contio magis vera quam grata

Speech more true than pleasant.

Contra fortunam

Against misfortunes.


Contract. Pact, adjustment or arrangement that creates an obligation between the parties that enter into them or use them up.

Contraria contrariis curantur

The opposed are cured by the opposed. Principle of allopathic medicine, that is to say, traditional medicine that cures illnesses with medicine that is contrary to the symptoms of the illnesses.

Contumeliis opertus

Oppress with assaults.


Convention. Pact, adjustment, agreement, arrangement. Assembly taking on all the powers of a country.

Corpora constricta vinculi

Bodies loaded with chains.

Corpus delicti

Body of evidence.

Corpus juris canonici

Body of canonic law. The term corpus applied to designate the collection of laws of the Church representing the character of a whole, it is very old; the designation Corpus canonum (body of canons), was already given in the Collectio Anselmo dedicata (collection created by Anselm), as the Decretorum corpus to the Decree of Gratian; Innocenci IV calls the Decretales Corpus juris.

Corpus juris civilis

Body of civil law. It is the collection of the Justinian legislative amendments in their last condition, in the following order: Institutions, Digest or Pandects. Codex repetitae praelationis and novels. The Corpus juris civilis can be considered from two points of view: as a Justinian law source and as the compilation of legal material, mostly of the classical age.

Corpus nummorum italicorum

Numismatic collection under the power of the king of Italy Victor Manuel III, created by the self sovereign. Traced from this collection the Reale Academia dei Licei lately Publisher a work with the same headline, including 42 plates with more than 700 reproductions between the 1354 coins described in the play.

Corpus parricidae feris

The body of a parricide to the beasts.

Corruptio optimi pessima

The corruption of the best is the worst, in the physical and moral order.

Corruptio unius est generatio alterius

The corruption of a being is the creation of another.

Credendum est

It is to be believed.


It is believed.

Crepitus digitorum

Finger rattling, between the Romans.


Crime, offence, fault. The possessive case of criminis (of the crime, of the offence).

Crimen maiestatis

Accusation of lesa majesty.

Crucem alicui

One to the scaffold.

Crudelitatem alicuius

The cruelty of somebody.

Crudelitatem in aliquo

Be sadistic with somebody.

Cum aliquo

Against somebody.

Cum Clitum interfecisset, sui facinoris Alexandrum paenituit

When ( or as, or after, o having) he killed Clito, Alejandro remorsed his crime.

Cum id cupias

As you want so.

Cum maxime

When above everything.

Cum patre

With my father.

Cum prima luce

At the crack of dawn.

Cum primum

As soon as.

Cum silentio

In silence.

Cur nocere mihi cogitas?

Why do you try to hurt me?

Cura ut valeas

Try to keep well.


Curatorship, take care, look alter. Institution (called curatorship), which as the guardianship, had the purpose of replacing the lack of capacity to act of the persons who were not under parens patriae. It differs from the guardianship which was given in special cases and for the sake of age, commenced when that ended. Institution created and governed by the roman law, now it has only historical importance, for having many civil codes recasted under guardianship, it appears in the Twelve Tables, for the wild and the spendthrift, who were subjected to guardianship since the first had no intelligence and the second had it complete. With time it extended to other cases and as from the IV century of Rome to the minors. Has the same starting point as the guardianship and develops pari passu.


Race, competition. The plural of curriculum is curricula.

Curriculum vitae

The race (duration, course) of life.


The vigilance.

Damnum infectum

Unperformed damage. Between the Romans it referred to the possible or unperformed damage called damnum factum.

Damnum non facit qui jure suo utitur

The one who uses his right does not hurt anybody. Rule of roman law used in a straight sense.

Dare manus

Lay the hands, surrender; by way of fact, hand to hand combat.

Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas

Criticism is lenient with the ravens and severe with the doves. Poem of Decius Junius Juvenalis (58-138) which indicates that criticism points to the weak, but respects the ones who know how to defend themselves.

Date frenos

Loosen the reins.

Date obolum Belisario

Give charity to Belisarius. Tends to be used to exhort to help an honorable man confined to misery, as Belisarius (494-565) General of Justinian, general Byzantine, who fell in the misfortune of the Emperor Justinian and, according to a tradition completely removed of historic basis (V. Belisarius), was obliged to beg his food.

De aliquo, de aliqua re

On something, over a thing; take a resolution, or measures (above all tragic, cruel, etc.)

De aquí puede deducirse cuán desatinado anduvo Manuel Kant (1724-1804) al pretender envolver a la misma censura de tránsito ilegítimo los argumentos cosmológico y ontológico; en éste, como en general en todos los puntos en que critica la escolásti

De caelo delapsus

Lowered from the sky.

De conditione opificum

Worker status. Title enciclic of Pope Leon XIII of May 15th, 1891 where he develops the classical principle on social substance. It is also referred with the first two words of the Latin text: Rerum Novarum (Of new things).

De consilii sententia

In conformity with the opinion of the council.

De ejus adventu nondum eram edoctus

Of his entry I was still not informed.

De finibus bonorum et motorum

About the purposes of the properties and the movements. Name of a philosophical play of Cicero.

De finibus suis exierunt

Left their territory.

De hac re inter nos (o mihi tecum) convenit

We are consistent with this.

De integro


De meridie

After midday.

De montibus umbrae

The shadows of the hills.

De omni re scibili, et de quibusdam aliis

Of all the things that can be known, and even of many others. De omni re scibili was the motto of the famous John Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), who boasted of giving a answer to everything being asked, no matter the difficulty of the question; et de quibusdam aliis is an addition of Francois Marie Aruet Voltaire (1694-1778) who bitterly criticizes the claims of the young wise. Nowadays this motto is applied accentuated or is useful to refer to a great scholar, and more to the one who knows nothing and pretends to know everything.

De pace colloqui

Lecture about peace.

De populo barbaro

About a barbarian people. Words with which a David’s psalm ends, and which is used to express that a violent act is going to be committed. Generally those words are preceded by the verb do: To do one of a barbarian people.

De prole augenda

About the need to procreate children. Speech of Quintus Caecilius Metellus called the Numidicus (¨ - 91 B.C.) that Augustus made to be distributed among the roman society after having published the laws of Julia and Popea against celibacy and on big families. From the few pieces we have received from this speech, it appears to follow that the author used an ironic tone, and presented the marriage not as an ideal, but as a necessary evil, and the women as a whip from which nature prevents us from getting free.

De veneficiis

Of poisoning.

De vita et moribus

About the life and the customs.

De vulnere tardus

Slow as a result of a wound.


Ended the war.


Owe. Term created with the Latin preposition "of" and the verb "having" which means “have”. To be obliged to something by law, moral, religion.

Debita meditatione

Famous pragmatic created by Peter III on November 14, 1339, which constitutes the local privilege of Barcelona on civil law matter of testate successions. It sets forth that a validity of a testament exists only with the capacity to testate and the institution of an heir capable, even though there may be a omission of a legitimate heir or disinheritance or some formality be omitted, provided there are two or more witnesses under the testament or last will and it be public, saving the omitted legitimate heirs or disinherited their rights to their legal portions , and even though for any reason there fails to be the instituted heir, the bequeaths and trusts or any disposition made to capable persons be valid.



Debitum conjugale

Marital duty. It is the duty each of the married spouse has over the other to copulate when the other requires or asks to do so. It is legal duty, however positive civil laws do not punish it since they cannot get into the sacred issues of the family and due to the fact that from the application of duress there might be worse effects. The marital duty is the consequence of the purposes of marriage.

Decem primi

The first ten decurions of a municipal city. This name was given in the past to the ten senators that occupied, respectively, the first position in front of their "decuria senatus". They represented the ten curias of the original tribe of the Ramnians. After the union of this with the Luceres and the Tities and the increase of the senators to 300, the ones of the first tribe kept their privileges with the jus dicendae sententiae of the others. In the age of the Republic the same name was given to the consulate characters and the senators of the oldest families. In the cities of the old Lazio and then of the Latin colonies which had a similar law (jus latii) the municipal senate also had ahead ten members called also decem primi or primores latinorum coloniarum, and when the law Julia of the year 709 of Rome organizes on uniform basis the cities of Italy, each one had its senate or ordo decurionum with the decem primi, which created a kind of mandated committed mainly with all the issues in Rome.

Decet imperatorem stantem mori

An emperor has to die standing. Words of Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus.


Statement. It has three meanings in the legal sense: 1) explanation or interpretation of what is doubtful, even though in this case the term interpretation is more used; 2) demonstration made by a person about facts determined in an oral, writing, legal, out of court, administrative manner; 3) official and public demonstration of a thing.

Decretum o Collectarium

Important collection of sources of Ecclesiastical law, created at the beginning of the XI century, and which was the basis of other sources.

Deferre nomen alicuis

File an accusation against oneself.


To be abandoned (to lack the breath)

Delectatione adfici

Experience a pleasure.


Offence. Infringement breach of law.


Crime. Quality of offender.




Cut from (separate or move away each other).

Deminutio capitis

Expiration, loss of citizenship rights.

Densus vimine

Heavily covered by willows.

Dente lupus, cornu taurus petit

The wolf attacks with the teeth and the bull with the horn. It suggests that as natural defense, each one defends as he can and uses the weapons provided by nature.

Deo, non fortuna

It means we should believe in the plans of God and not in the ones of luck or fortune.

Deorum muneribus instructi sumus

We have been covered by divine gifts.

Derecho cesáreo

Collection of constitutions, proclamation, decrees and prescript of the roman emperors since they had all the power and sovereignty till the fall of the empire.


Dereliction, desert, abandonment. Name given to the thing abandoned by his owner. It is made nullius since possession is lost.

Desiderium crebris epistulis

Sweeten nostalgia by frequent exchange of letters.

Desilire de equo

Dismounting his own horse.

Desperare sibi

To be past praying for.

Desperatis rebus

In desperate situation.

Deum colem, regem serva

Worship God and observe the law.

Devota arbos

Damned tree.

Diabolus metalorum

Evil of metals. Name given by the alchemist to the tin, due to its exceptional metalloid nature.

Diarium europeum

News publication of the XVIII century, herald of the modern journalism, founded in Hayn (Silesia) by Martin Meyer with the pseudonym of Philamerus Irenieus Elisius. The first volume covering the years 1657 and 1658, appeared in 1659.

Dic quaeso, quid velis

Do me the favor of saying what you want.

Dicam tuis ut librum describant

Mandate yours to copy the book.

Dico dolorem non esse summum malum

I affirm that the pain is not the worst evil.

Dicta dicere in aliquem

Make dirty jokes to one.

Dicta probantia

Aphorism which means probable force, specially in biblical sense, on which an article of faith is based on, or from where it is deducted.

Dicta testium

Declaration of the witnesses.

Dicto anno

On that year.


Saying, judgment, proverb.

Dictum clasicum

Classical place.

Dictum dicere

Say a joke.

Diem dicere alicui

To signal somebody the day of appearance

Diem ex (o) de die

Day after day.

Diem ex die te exspecto

I wait for you day after day.

Diem ex mense

A day of the month.

Dies constituta

Prefixed term.

Dies festus ludorum

Festivity day with games.

Dies nefasti

Fateful days.

Dies pecuniae

Payment day.

Dificultas anonade

The difficulties of supply


Ordered, distributed, Digest or Pandects. Collection of Roman law decisions unifying the writings of the old jurists for the constitution Deo Auctore of December 15 th, 530. Justinian, after recompiling the laws in the Codex Justinianeus (528-529), started the hard venture of recompiling, extracting it, codifying it and modernizing it, the Jus (works of jurists). As preparation for the same he issues 50 decisions and the 250 amending Constitutions, and once the jus controversum en ius receptum was formed and repealed or reformed the old, started the venture of creating a Codex juris enucleati. Under Constitution Deo auctore of December 15 530 the emperor committed Trebonian the creation of the work (Roman jurist of the VI century and minister of justice during the Justinian government, author of great compilations) together with a commission consisting of 16 persons who Tribonian himself was entitled to choose. Justinian set the following criteria: that the work had to be divided into 50 books and the books into titles, whether according the order of the Edict, or of the Code; that the work should have to called Digest (name given to long treaties on law, the word deriving from digerere, distribute orderly) or Pandectas (two Greek terms which mean contain everything); that commissioners were free to chose the works not be added, and they were not bound to follow the opinion of the majority, not obliged to remove notes of Paulo, Ulpianus and Marcianus Popinianus (which were previously abolished); that the commissioners themselves were authorized to remove everything they considered obsolete, needless or harmful, and that any antinomy or repetition should have to be avoided not only inside the work but also with respect to the decisions already included in the Code, as well as everything turned out of date. Finally the Emperor prohibited that comments be made to the work done under these criteria (with the purpose of preventing further conflicting opinions), only permitting to create indexes to the same.

Dignus est intrare

It is worth entering. Formula taken of the burlesque ceremony of the Imaginary Invalid of Moliere, used as a joke when somebody is to be accepted into a corporation or society. It is also referred to as dignus est intrare in docto corpore nostro (is worth entering our scholar corporation).

Dignus est operarius mercede sua

The worker deserves his salary or food.

Dignus vindice nodus

Knot that cannot be undone, but by a protecting God. Expression of Horace referring to the outcome of certain dramas. It is used figuratively to mean a that a particular serious issue cannot be solved satisfactorily without the recommendation or interference of an influential person.

Dimidius patrum, dimidius plebis

Half patrician, half plebeian.


Straight. Be headed, straighten, line up.

Dirunus cibus

Portion of a day.

Dis genitus

Son of Gods.

Discrepat (de, inter)

There is discrepancy (about, between).

Diversis itineribus

Through paths separate between themselves.

Divitiae certae

Safe wealth.


Divorce. Deriving from divert, step aside, disagree, since the spouses seem to move in different directions (in diverse directions eunt, walk towards different parts).

Divortium aquarum

Point from which current waters move towards opposite directions.

Divortium cum uxore

To divorce.

Do litteras tabellario ad Aticum

Deliver the postman a letter for Atico.

Do operam alicui rei

Work on something.

Docere aliquem equo, fidibus

Teach somebody to ride a horse.

Doctus cum libro

Wise with a book. Applies to the persons who unable to create or even judge by themselves, are always repeating what they have read from the books. An Spanish proverb says about this: “that brightness – derive from other talents; - lets know which is yours". Equivalent to the common phrase: to speak from hearsay.

Doctus litteris latinis

Versed in Latin.

Dolent fortasse et aguntur

Groan perhaps and torments.

Dolis capiebantur

Were possessed by these deceits.

Dolor, vulneribus

For pain, the wounds.

Dolus malus abest

Without fraud, faithfully. The first letters are frequently seen in the roman sale records, contracts, etc.

Domesticum bellum

Internal war.

Domi militiaeque

In peace and in war.

Domine, salvam fac Republicam

God, save the Republic. First words of an official prayer sung every Sunday at French Churches. During the times of the Monarchy it was said: salvum fac regem (save the king).

Domus mea tibi patet

My home is always open for you.

Domus tanti veniit quanti empta erat

The house was sold at purchase price; get by corruption, bribery.

Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos; tempora si fuerint nubilia, solus eris

While you are happy, you will have a lot a of friends, but if the weather gets cloudy, or fortune is unfavorable, you will be left alone. Maxim of Ovid which does not need explanation. The rich has a lots of friends, while from the poor all run away.

Dotis (genitivo de dos)

Dote. Deriving from give. Fortune taken by the woman upon obtaining status. It was a custom of the old people that men gave the women to whom they married a certain amount of property or money; the same happened between the Germans, where the husband gave the pledge to the woman by virtue of the marriage. In Rome, even though the sponsaliciae largitates were known, gifts given by both spouses by virtue of their marriage, far from there being a legal duty by the husband to provide a gift, the woman was the one who gave the gift. The dowery as endowment of the woman to the husband to support the charges of marriage was originated in the Roman law, based on the need of the daughters to receive their fatherly heir in advance, since they had no right to it from the moment they entered their husbands family; but even after this did not take effect, the dowery went on existing due to the highness of their purpose and to the fact it enhanced the dignity of the woman. From Rome, and upon the birth of the Roman law, the dowery extended to different countries.


Old religious belief which considers that the universe was formed and maintained through the concurrence of two principles equally necessary and everlasting, and independent one from the other. Philosophical opinion which explains the origin and nature of the universe through the action of two diverse or opposite substances or principles. Under the Law it refers to the double form of the main institutions comprising the sovereignty of the State, and which can include the whole of it.

Dubio caelo

With an uncertain sky.


Dispel all uncertainty.

Dubitationem expellere

Dispel the doubts.

Dubito an, Duco si

Maybe without, it is probable.

Dubium est an

Maybe, it is probable; uncertain, critical situation.

Ducere aliquam in matrimonio

Accept one as wife.

Ducere aliquem in carcerem

Imprison somebody.

Ducere uxorem

Accept a wife.

Dulcia linquimus arva

We abandoned our cherished fields. Hemistich of Virgil in his I Eclogue, third line.

Dulcis moriens reminiscetur Argos

His mind, upon death, reminds him of his sweet homeland, Argos. Virgil draws in this poem the pain of a young warrior who dies far away from this homeland.

Dum angent, clamant

While they keep silence, they talk. This expression implies that there is very eloquent silence.

Dum ne

Provided that no.

Dum spiro, spero

While I live I wait. This expression is used to suggest that hope should not be lost but with the life.

Dum ut

Salt provided that; salt under the condition that.

Dummodo ne

Provided that no.

Duodecim scripta (ludus duodecim scriptorum)

Game of the old Romans by which they used a board or square (alveus tabula), where twelve lines were drawn (scripta), divided by a vertical line, so they formed twenty four squares. The game was played by throwing dices (mittere, jacere) through a beaker (pyrgus, fritillus), and putting inside the squares queens or pawns that each player put on the board or made go forward depending on the number of points of the dices.

Dupli damnabitur

Be condemned to pay double.

E caelo, ab astris

From the sky, from the stars; descend to; to get down to.

E medio tollere

Remove; place available to anyone; place at the sight of everyone.

Eadem mente esse

Have the same feelings.

Ecce autem

So therefore, observe that therefore.

Eccum lupus in sermone

Here is the wolf talking about himself. It is equivalent to the Spanish proverb: On mentioning the dastardly of Rome, then appears.


Proclamation. From declare, mandate, order. Official proclamation with the authority of the prince or magistrate.

Editio princeps

First edition. Words with which some foreign writers tend to express on the cover of their works that the books they publish has been edited for the first time.

Eduxit eum ex fano

He was removed from the sanctuary.


Effect. From efficere, execute, complete. What naturally follows from an cause. In Law all relation or legal institution has a content, created by rights and duties, which constitutes the legal effect of the same.

Effici non potest quin

It is not possible that no.

Ego sum qui sum

I am what I am. Words of the Exodus 3,14 expressed by God to Moses.

Egredi extra castra

Go outside the camp.

Eheu! fugaces labuntur anni

Ah! Years pass by fleeting. Words used by Horace to commence an ode to Postumus.

Eicere se

Plunge, jump.

Ejus auctoritas magni habebatur

His prestige was prized a lot.

Ejus est tolere cujus est condere

The one having power to do one thing has the power to undo it. It is used in a strict sense, and so it is said: a law made in Courts, can only be repealed by the courts through another law.

Ejus sit onus, cujus est emolumentum

The burden be for the one who receives the profit. Legal aphorism expressing that the one who receives the profit from a work is the one obliged to serve or perform it. It is also used in a vernacular sense: the one who receives the profits must also bear the burdens.

Ejusdem farinae

From the flour itself.

Ejusdem furfuris

From the same bran. It is always is taken as the worse part to compare persons having the same addictions or defects .

El origen de la acción praescriptis verbis se encuentra en una actio civilis incerti o in factum, inventada por el célebre jurisconsulto Marco Antistio Labeon para los casos en que, existiendo contrato, no era fácil determinar cuál, ni, por tanto, la

El poder público, por muy soberano que se le conciba, no merece el nombre de augusto que el poder supremo da a sus titulares más que cuando en su producción ordenada sigue las normas inflexibles del orden jurídico. Un poder de hecho que no haya mereci

El tribuno Lucio Calpurnio Piso, hizo aprobar, el año 147 la primera ley de pecuniis repetundis, naciendo de ella la primera cuestión permanente o perpetua, y en virtud de la Ley Acilia, de 122, se creó un juez especial, pretor, para juzgarla. La segun


Election. From eligere, choose. Action and effect of choosing.

Elegantia sine molestia

Elegance without fondness.

Eloga legum

Manual of Byzantine law, of official nature, very much important in the history of roman law.

Eloquens idemque iuris peritus

Eloquent the same as versed in law.

Eloquentia res est una omnium dificillima

Eloquence is more difficult than any other thing.


Migrate. From emigrare, migrate. Action or effect of migrating.

En causa

Here is the issue.

En el mundo antiguo el prisionero de guerra era esclavo del pueblo que lo aprisionaba, suponiéndose también lo mismo del que era hecho prisionero, aun en tiempo de paz, por pueblos que no había celebrado con Roma un tratado de amistad. Así, pues, el c

En primer lugar, no se aplicaba a los que habían sido entregados al extranjero como esclavos por los modos del Derecho civil (como por venta, y así lo dice Cicerón), lo cual implica ya una especie de reconocimiento del derecho de los extranjeros; en se

En tiempo de Augusto las contribuciones aumentaron en número y cantidad considerable. En aquel tiempo existió el sistema de tributos fijos y permanentes, y hubo contribuciones directas sobre las cosas y las personas, e indirectas de todas las clases: un

En un principio fueron meros empleados afectos a los archivos imperiales; pero en el Bajo Imperio las tareas de los principales funcionarios se repartieron en cierto número de scrinia, a cuyo frente estaba el primiscrinius o el primicerius de toda oficin

En un principio se encomendó al Senado la facultad de velar por el estricto cumplimiento de la justicia en las provincias sometidas al Estado romano, hasta el extremo de que el año 187 a.C. anula aquella corporación de distinciones del procónsul Marco

En unquam liberi erimus?

Therefore, are we never going to be free?

Eo magis quod

Moreover, therefore.

Eo minus quod

Less, therefore.

Eo modo agitabat ut

Behaved in such a way that.

Eo superbiae venit, ut omnes contemnat

It is so proud, that undervalues everybody.

Eodem loci (o in eodem loco) esse

To be in the same situation.

Eorum nos miseret

We sympathize with them.

Eos adduxit ut vererentur

Made them fear.

Epistolae obscurorum virorum

Letters of obscure men. Title of a satirical book made public in Germany in 1515-1517, apparently written by many clergymen and lecturers of Colonia and other places. It is considered one of the best samples of satire literature.

Epistolae secretae

Secret letters. In the classical old age letters were written on boards made of wood, ivory, lead or tin, afterwards on palm tree leaves, on papyrus of certain tree cortex. The place and date was or was not made public; in the front the name of the addressee and the sender appeared in dative, ended with a salutation, valid.

Eripuit coelo flumen sceptrumque tyrannio

Pull up the beam from the sky and the despots from the scepter. Writing gravened on the base of the monument to Franklin, which in few words describes the main acts of his lifeas the lightning rods and the participation taken in the independence of the United States of America .


From eros: love, and obsession. Love madness characterized by an erotic raving. In another time this term referred to the raving having sexual or personalized content. In fact it is only one of the wild definitions that may accompany the early insanity, the raving for interpretation, the madness, the alcoholism, the hysteria

Errando corrigitur error

By erring the mistake is corrected, or either, by erring we learn.

Errare humanum est

Erring is part of the human being. If human being nature is subject to mistakes, any involuntary erring deserves tolerance.

Errorem poenitendo corrigere

Redeem a mistake with penance. Words of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.), the sense of which is that regret deletes many faults.

Es probable que antes de Lucio Cornelio Sila existiesen los Tribunales de ambitus et peculatus, siendo dicho dictador quien organiza definitivamente las quaestiones perpetuae y los Tribunales, asignando a cada uno de estos sus atribuciones y competencia,

Escoto y los nominalistas han criticado esta distinción, mas transportando la cuestión fuera de su terreno. Por lo demás, se justifica plenamente en las discusiones sobre el argumento de San Anselmo para probar la existencia de Dios, el cual valdría s

Esse in crimine

To be subject of an accusation.

Esse in ore omnium

To be mentioned by all.

Est cur gaudeas

There is something to be glad for.

Est mihi nomen Alexander

My name is Alexander.

Est quaedam flere voluptas

There is some pleasure in crying. Ovid uses these words to express the comfort felt by a person, suffering a serious pain, who cries to feel relief.

Esto no era suficiente, por lo que cuando la equidad desarrolló su influjo en el derecho romano, el pretor concedió en su edicto valor jurídico a las convenciones, siempre que no hubiera en ellas dolo malo, ni fraude, ni fueran opuestas al derecho escr

Et animo et dictis

At a time his feelings and words.

Et caetera (o) et cetera

And the rest of the things. Latin words from which the Castilian etc, has developed.

Et campos ubi Troja fuit

And leaves the fields where Troy existed. Words in a line of the Aeneid of Virgil, that express the pain experienced upon passing by the ruins of a place which has been expensive..

Et hoc amplius censeo...:

In addition I provide for that...

Et tu, Brute!

You too, Brutus!. Latin expression having the same meaning as tu quoque, filimi! (you too, my son!)

Et vitam impendere vero

The truth is above everything; and should be heralded even upon risk of life. Equivalent to the Castilian expression: the truth above everything.

Etiam gravissima

Even the most serious evils.

Etiam maior

Even greater.

Etiamsi omnes negaverint te, ego non

Even when all deny you, I do not. Words said by Saint Peter to Jesus.

Etymologicum magnum

The great etymologist. This is the title generally given to a Greek dictionary created towards the second half of the X century the exact title of which is Etymologicum mega kai alphabeton.

Eum ferre non posssum, necdum amem

Far from loving him, I cannot even bear him.

Eum piget quod te non vidit

He is angry for not having seen you

Eunt anni

The years pass.

Ex adverso

Head on.

Ex aere alieno

Due to the debts.

Ex aliquo loco

Of a place.

Ex amico inimicus fieri alicui

From friend becoming enemy for somebody.

Ex auctore, ex fine, ex modo

By the author, for the purpose, for the manner. With these words Saint Thomas of Aquin gives the rules to know about the justice and injustice of the laws.

Ex captivis

By the prisoners.

Ex die quo

From the day in which.

Ex fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos

You will know them from their fruit. Word of Christ that warn about not being deceived by fake prophets.

Ex informata conscientia

Through informed conscience.

Ex labore se reficere

Recover from its fatigue.

Ex manibus dimitere


Ex manibus dimitere

From your own mouth I judge you. It is a phrase from a parables of Christ.

Ex ore parvulum veritas

The truth in the mouths of the children. Implies that in the mouth of the children there is no place for fiction. Taken from the Proverbs.

Ex Oriente lux

From eastern comes the light. Latin aphorism which, in addition to its straight sense, it is used figuratively to express that the truth of the Gospel came from the East.

Ex patria

To exile.

Ex pugna

Of the fight.

Ex quo

Since that.

Ex quo tempore

From the moment that.

Ex Senatus consulto

According to a decree of the Senate.

Ex tempore

According to the old musical terminology it meant what is now referred to as improvisation.

Ex testamento

Under the testament: It is used in forensic language as opposed to ab intestate (without testament).

Ex toto corde

With the whole heart, with the whole soul.

Ex vulnere periit

Died as a consequence of the wound.

Excellere ceteris

Distinguish more than any other.

Exceptio probat regulam

The exception confirms the rule.

Exceptis excipiendis

Except what should be excepted. This is said when it is intended to avoid or suppress a portion of what was promised.

Excidat illa dies

Let the memoir of that day perish!. Words of the Thebais, from Publius Papinius Statius (61-96), used to curse the day when he witnessed the sacrilegious fight between two enemy brothers Eteocles and Polynices.This expression applies to that fatal knowledge, the recollection of which is intended to be erased.

Excusatio non petita, accusatio manifesta

The one who accuses without nobody accusing him, accuses himself. This aphorism, sometimes true, is not always conclusive


Execution. Fill in, complete, punish. Action and effect of executing.

Exire ex urbe

Leave the city

Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor

That a revenger some day be born from my ash. Words of Virgil in the Aeneid, which are the impression of Dido dying

Exortus est servus qui

Appeared (it is presented) a slave to.

Experientia docet stultos

Experience corrects the foolish. This expression is intended to express that they are not corrected through reasoning but through the lessons given by the reality.

Exploratum habeo

I have verified.

Extra ordinem

Out of the ordinary, extraordinary.

Extra quam

Unless that.

Extra quam si

Except if.

Extra quam si

He took his tunic off.

Extra ripas

Out of its riverbed.

Facere non possum ut

It is impossible that I.

Facere ut

To do in a manner that.

Facere ut non

To do in a way that no.

Facile omnes, quum valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus

When we are healthy we easily give good advice to those who are ill. It is the final saying of the second act of the comedy of Publius Terentius. It is frequently used to express the ease a man having success has to suggest resignation to the one living in misfortune.

Facilis ad dicendum

That has ability to talk well.

Facilis descensus averni

The descend from hell is very easy. Words of Virgil in the Aeneid. It is used to mean that falling into evil is very easy; but going back and climbing to the superior regions of the good is difficult and hard working.

Facio ut facias

I do so that you do. Contract by name, innominate, under which one of the parties undertakes to pay through a don with money or in kind.

Facit indignatio versus

Outrage creates the poems. This words of Decius Junius Juvenalis (Satire I, 79) suggests that outrage is enough to create eloquence.

Facta patrum

The accomplishment of the forefathers.

Facundia praeceps

Slippery wordiness. As Quintus Horatius Flaccus defined Poetic Art, he meant that it is not the same the natural eloquence, which is balanced and according to the laws of reasoning and the suitability of the opportunity, as the unsuitable and slippery gossip.


Give a false testimony.

Fama rem excedit

Fame surpasses the reality.

Famam et gloriam alicui

The same reputation and renown as another

Fas gentium

The law of the people.

Favete linguis

Keep silence. Commencement of a poem of Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Ode III). The poet asks for silence so that the moral truth to be expressed by him be heard. The expression favete linguis is a formula used in the roman old age, which the person who was going to celebrate a religious ceremony used to address the attendants.

Fecundi calices, quem non facere disertum?

Ay cups full of eloquence! Who didn’t you inspire?

Felix culpa!

Happy fault! Exclamation of St. Augustine regarding the fault of our first parents, which caused the coming of the Redeemer.

Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas

Blessed the one who can know the reasons of the things. Poem of Publius Virgilius Maro (70-19 B.C.) in Georgics II, cited to express that the real science is the one that understands the causes producing the phenomena subjected to our observation and study, therefore being happy the souls that make it possible since they are therefore above the vernacular superstitions. In practice it intends to express the purpose of the man to reach wisdom.

Fenestella confessionis

Opening or hatch over the denomination, that is, the lowest chamber where the bodies of the martyr or other saints rest.

Ferret iter

Made his way. It is the commencement of the poem 811 of the book VII of the Aeneid of Publius Virgilius Maro, where the poet describes the quick movements of the heroin Camila, who used to fight in favor of the Volsci of Italia.

Fervere Omnia tunc pariter vento nimbisque videbis

So you will see the winds and clouds move and wave together. Poem of the book I of the Georgics of Publius Virgilius.

Fervet olla vivit amicitia

While the stewpot boils friendship will last. Used to express that friend relationships are stronger on wealthy times than on difficult times.

Fervet opus

Jobs boil. Words of Publius Virgilius to draw the endless activity of the bees, and it is used to express the fever activity that is carried out in order to start a venture.

Fetur in arva ferens cumulo

Precipitates the fields dragging oodles. Taken from the Aeneid of Publius Virgilus Maro where there is a comparison between the damage caused by the flooding rivers on a fertile plain an the one caused by the Greeks to the city of Troy upon taking hold of it by treason.

Ficto vultu

With affected expression.


Not to keep his word.

Fidem alicuius

The good faith of oneself.

Fidem non habeo Gaio

I do not trust Gaius

Fieri potest ut non veniat

It is possible he does not come.

Fieri potest ut veniat

It is possible he comes.

Filii mortem

The death of the son.

Flebat pater de filii morte

The father cried the death of his son.

Flebiter in vulnere

Sadly as a consequence of his wound

Fletus fregere virum

Tears softened that man.

Flocci facere

Value a little.

Flos aetatis

Best age.

Flos vernus

Spring flower.

Foedus facere

Agree upon a partnership.

Foedus rumpere

Break a treaty.

Foenum habet in cornu

Has hay in the horns. Fifth Horace uses these words to describe certain satiric poets with reference to brave oxes the horns of which the shepherds cover with hay or straw in order to prevent them to hurt.

Foretis ac strenuus

Final and decided.

Foris clarus

Popular abroad.

Forsitan quispiam dixerit

Maybe someone has said.

Fortem fac (o fac ut) animum habeas

Try to have good character.

Fortem virili pectore

Hymn of the Roman breviary made in 1602 by the Cardinal Silvio Antoniano.

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis

The strong come from the strong and good. It is a poem of Fifth Horace cited to indicate that the most famous descendants and lineage derive from good and hardworking forefathers.

Fortis ante omnes habetur

It is considered more brave than the others. Fraudem alicui: Ambushes against someone.


The forum.

Forum agere

Administer justice.

Fosan et haec olim mimenisse juvabit

Maybe there will be a time when these memories will be nice. Hemistich of Publius Virgilius. These were the words used by the famous Aeneas to try to comfort his partners.

Fraus infida

Unfaithful fraud.

Frondes tempora cingunt

Leaves cover the temples.

Fructuosum est:

It seems to be advantageous.

Fruenda est a sapientia

Wisdom must be enjoyed.

Fruges consumare nati

The men who born just to eat. Words used with reference to the lazy men who live and die without having served any service to the humanity.

Fugae sese mandare

Look for their salvation by escaping.

Fugae vitam suam

Look for their salvation by escaping.

Fugam facere

Escape; to run away.

Fugas facere

To frighten off one time after the other.

Fuge peccatum

Avoid the sin.

Fugiens laboris

That avoids work.

Fulmina quum caderent, discussaque moenia flammis.

Fundamenta urbi, pacis

The basis of a city, of the peace.

Funiculus triplex difficile rompitur

The threefold string breaks easily. Line taken from the Holy Scripture used to praise the efficiency deriving from the union.

Fur erat et latro

Was a sneak thief and a robber. Taken from the Gospel.

Furor arma ministrat

The rage provides the weapons.

Genus humanum

Human being.

Gerere morem alicui

Satisfy somebody.

Gladium destringere, stringere, educere

Unsheathe the sword.

Graciano (Decreto de)

(Decree of): Very important collection of doctrines that is part of the first part of the Corpus juris canonici. It was created between the years 1127-1151. Famous Italian canonist, author of the Decretum; is considered the real creator of the science of Canonic law. Born at the end of the XI century and died in the middle of the XII century.

Gradum addere

Extend the step.

Gradus ad Parnassum

Dictionary of Latin expressions with indication of the prosodic quantity of them followed by synonyms, poetic expressions, etc. that make easier the diversification for the ones devoted to create Latin poems, very especially the beginners.

Graecostasis o graecostadium

In Rome, public hall in the North of the romanorum Forum, inside the temple of the Concordia where foreigners met, specially the Greek, before entering the senate.

Graecum est, non legitur

He is Greek, it is not read. Aphorism of the Middle Age where it is condemned the influenced disdain of the ones who undervalue the ones who are unable to learn. Some use this expression as synonym of the Spanish: To bother somebody the black to read.

Gramatici certant

Grammarians discuss. It is used with reference to an issue over which there is not an agreement and still no decision taken.

Grates alicui

To thank somebody.

Gratia alicuius

The influence of somebody.

Gratiae causa


Gratiam alicui facere

Forgive somebody.

Gratias agimus tibi, Domine

We show our gratitude, God.

Grato animo

With recognition.

Gratulor quod…

I appreciate that...

Gratulor tibi de victoria, in victoria, victoriam

I congratulate you for your success.

Gravari coepit

Started to cause difficulties.

Gravi causa

Due to a powerful reason.

Graviter adfectus

Seriously ill.

Gutta cavat lapidem non vi sed saepe cadendo

The drop of water bored the stone not by force but through falling frequently.

Habeas corpus

Words with which the order of appearance commences. Right of every citizen, arrested or imprisoned, to appear in an immediate and public manner before a judge or court, so that after being heard it be decided whether the arrest was legal or not, and whether it has to be appealed or be kept like that. It is a phrase used in England and nowadays accepted in our language. Under political law, famous guarantee, included under an English constitutional law, on behalf of the individual’s freedom. The abuse of the executive power and the lords, who kept persons in jail for a long period of time without enough cause or delayed to give a legal treatment to the issue, proceeding frequently used to deprive people of their leaders, they were the cause that from the old age, it be accepted to go to the Court of the King bank so that he issued an order (that he was unable to deny) so that the person who was arrested or under custody to an English subject, was taken before the judge, so that he after examining the issue, decided to acquit or free the arrested person or either ordered the continuance of the arrest. This order was referred to as habeas corpus since the main formula of it read as follows: Habeas corpus ad suficiendum. But this remedy was not applicable to those cases where the arrest had been the consequence of an special order of the King, of his private council or of the Lords comprising it, therefore the Parliament ordered under the BILL called petition of rights, passed in 1628, that nobody could be arrested under custody as a consequence of those arrests; however the judges did not apply this BILL, by asserting long delays under the excuse to having to analyze the arrest reasons

Habeas corpus ad suficiendum

Habeas corpus

Habemus confitentem reum

We have the convict and the guilty. Phrase given by Cicero in Pro Ligarius which in forensic language is used to indicate the guilty who confessed his crime. Familiarly speaking it is used to refer to the who confesses his blame without being an offender.

Habemus luxuriam atque avaritiam, publicem egestatem, privatim opulentiam

We are possessed by luxury and greed, in public the poverty, wealth in private. Words that according to the historians were said by Marcus Porcius Cato, referred to as the Censor (234-149 B.C.) with which he summarized the corruption in Rome.

Habemus Pontificem

We have a Pontiff. Part of the traditional formula given by the President of the Cardenalici body to announce the people the election of the new Pope.

Habent sua fata libelli

Books have their destiny. Hemistich of the line 218 of the Carmen Heroicum (heroic line) of Publius Terentius Maurus (I century A.C.). The complete poem reads as follows: Pro captu lectoris habent sua fata libelli (according to the intelligence of the reader books have their destiny); it means that, even though a book is successful, luck or destiny a very important element.

Habeo tibi fidem

I believe you.

Habere aliquem inimicorum loco

To have one as enemy.

Habere aliquem inimicum

To be one angry with oneself.


Consider it true.

Habitus delinquendi

The tendency to crime.

Habitus non facit monachum

Clothes do not make the man.

Hac mente esse, ut

To have the intent to.

Hac spe lapsus

Disappointed with regards to this hope.

Haec domus fit patris

This house now belongs to my father.

Haec olim meminisse juvabit

With pleasure and enthusiasm we remember afterwards these things. Hemistich of a poem of Publius Virgilius. It refers to that gloomy pleasure felt upon remembering past misfortunes..

Haec urbs, lux orbis terrarum

This city, lighthouse of the world.

Haeredis fletus sub persona risus est

The cry of the one who inherits is a hidden smile. Latin proverb applied to those who show sorrow to hide their secret happiness.

Haeret lateri lethalis arundo

The deadly arrow is plunged in his side. Hemistich of a poem of Virgilius. Applied to the continuous suffering caused by passions and regret.

Hanc audaciam!

Such a shamelessness!

Hastam ponere

To auction.

Haud facile


Haud paenitendus magister

A satisfactory teacher.

Haud scio

I do not know, I ignore it.

Haurire aquam de puteo

Take water out of the well.

Heres Boborum omnium, (o) ex asse (o) ex libella

Universal heir.

Heres ex semisse, ex dodrante

Heir of half the fortune, of three fourths.

Heroicis aetatibus

In heroic times.


(from heterochronous) Creation of body parts in times different to the one when they generally grow. Partial hypertrichosis with age abnormality, for instance, anticipation of puberty hair. Deviation made frequently evident in the individual development (ontogenesis), anticipating some organs to what was expected by the phylogeny (ontogenic acceleration), or on the contrary delaying (ontogenic retardation).

Hic est sapiens, haec est bona, hoc est utile

This is wise, this is good, this is useful..

Hic ipse

The same.

Hic vincendum aut moriendum est

Here we must defeat or die.

Hinc illae lacrimae

Here those tears. Generally used to express the cause or origin of an unfortunate event.


From the Greek Hyper: over and aesthesis: sensation. Excessive sensitivity, general or partial increase of the skin sensitivity or the mucous. Excessive sensitivity of the teguments or a special sense. Acoustic, of the brain, cutaneous, painful, tactical, sexual hyperesthesia.

Hiperestesia sexual activa

Translated into the psychic sphere as a consequence of an obsession of erotic content, and on the somatic, as a consequence of a congestion and its genitals turbulence.


From the Greek Hyper: beyond, and tricosis: growth of the hair. Exaggerated development of the hair or scalp.

Hoc cordi est mihi

I like this.

Hoc fecit ne poenas daret

He did it in order not to be published.

Hoc fieri oportet

This is necessary to be done.

Hoc gaudeo

I enjoy this.

Hoc in nos non convenit

This has nothing to do with us.

Hoc inter nos (o mihi tecum) convenit

We talked informally about this.

Hoc nobis non convenit

This is not convenient to us.

Hoc rei (o cum re) convenit

This is according to the thing.

Hodie mane

This morning.


Homicide. Dead caused by one person to another.

Homines non re, sed nomine

Men not according to reality, but according to the name.

Homini homini lupus

The man is wolf of the man. Phrase taken from an epigram of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who inspired in the passage of the drama Asinaria of T.Maccius Plautus (254-184 B.C.), where it is read: Lupus est homo homini, non homo (the man is wolf of the man, not man).

Hominibus feris legatum

An ambassador in the hands of some savage men.

Hominis est errare, insipientis in errore perseverare

Men err, foolish go on erring. Persevere in the mistake. Latin proverb expressing that we should not be stubborn and obstinate. In its most popular manner it reads: cujus vis hominis est errare, nullius, sini insipientis, est in errore perseverare.

Homo de corpore animoque constat

The man consists of soul and body.

Homo de plebe

A man from the heap.

Homo frugi (u) homo frugi bonae

Practical, useful man, man for a lot.

Homo proponit, Deus disponit

The man proposes, God decides. Latin proverb which was sometimes used with the same meaning as the corresponding Castilian proverb.

Homo sum; humani nihil a me alienum puto

I am a man, nothing that is human, is far from me. Words of Publius Terentius (Heautontimoroumenos, I act, 1st scene.). It means that ordinary mortals suffer the same vices, weaknesses and defects, and that upon censuring them the possibility of committing them should be considered as probable.

Homo virtute cognita

Man of recognized virtue.

Honesta mors turpi vita patior

A beautiful death is noticeable to a life of dishonor. Expression of Marcus Claudius Tacitus, where the belief of the pagans is summarized, consisting in that in order to avoid their unavoidable dishonor, it was worth taking their own life.

Honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere

Live honestly, not to hurt the pair. According to Justinian, those are the three basis of every legislation.

Honestis nominibus

Under deceptively appealing excuses.

Honestissimus inter suos

The most honorable of his type.

Honestum non est semper quod licet

Not always is honest what is permitted. The honorable man sometimes will have to deny what is legitimate.

Honorem alicui tribuere

To testimony honor to somebody.

Honores mutant mores

Honors change the habits. Used as comment on the change generally observed in the conduct of the ones who reached the peak.

Honori est alicui

It is a cause of honor for somebody.

Honoris causa

Due to or by reason of honor. Doctor honoris causa is an honorable title given by some universities to notable persons.

Honoris gratia

As consideration, as respect.

Honos alit artes

Honor feeds the arts. It expresses that the considerations showed and the respect given to the artists, feeds them and serves as compensation to their efforts.

Hora prima diurna

The one commencing at dawn.

Horresco referens

I terrify when I tell it. Words of Virgilius put in the mouth of Aeneas when speaking on the misfortune of Troy, which is now used as joke.

Hortari ut

Urge strongly to

Hospite insalutato

Without greeting the host. To refer to a person who enters and leaves without using the customary greeting or farewell terms.

Hospitium cum aliquo facere

Reach with somebody hospitality relationships.

Hostem in fugam

Escaping the enemy.

Hostes de iugis

To the enemies of the height.

Hostes in fugam

Escaping the enemies.

Hostes latera adsultantes

The enemies attacking the wings.

Hostes suppliciis

To the enemies with sufferings.

Huc arrogantiae venerat ut…

He had reached such a level of price that...

Iam dudum te exspectamus

We have been waiting for you some time.

Ibi deficit orbis

Here the world ends. Words that according to the mythological tradition were engraved on the rocks which the fable calls Hercules columns.

Id aetatis

Of that age.

Id est

This is, that is to say.

Id tempore

In this time.

Idem atque

The same way that.

Ignari discant, ament meminisse periti

Learn the ignorants, keep in mind the learned. Motto that fits very well on the cover of a didactical work, as shown by the evidenced meaning.

Ignorantia facit excusat

The ignorance of the fact exempts the blame. It implies that a criminal fact is not so when it was committed being ignorant of the surrounding circumstances.

Ignorantia non excusat legem

Ignorance does not exempt the fulfillment of the law. Law binds everybody, the ones who know it and the ones who do not know it.

Illa fuit praesto natali suo ipse die

She met there on the day of her anniversary precisely.

Imitatores servum pecus

Imitators, herd of serfs. Words used by Horace to objurgate the imitators.

Impavidum ferient ruinae

Ruins will bury the fearless. Strong image with which Horace in his Ode III draws the persistence of the strong and just man to whom the collapsing orb cannot inject dread.

Impedio ne frater proficiscar

I prevent my brother to leave.

Imperare sibi maximum est imperium

To control oneself is the highest signiory.

Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique

Wealth Esther serves or control the one who possess it. Phrase with which Horace refers to the rich rich and the poor rich.

Imperat frumentum exercitui

Caesar imposes the Gallic wheat as taxation for his army.

Imperitia culpae adnumerantur

Incompetence is considered as fault. It expresses that ignorance is for the one who possesses it a cause of fault.


The power.

Imperium flagitio acquisitum, nemo umquam bonis artibus exercuit

The power obtained through crime was never exercised in a good manner. Words of Tacitus which deny a healthy effectiveness to the power badly obtained.

Impetrare ne

Reach that no.

Impetrare ut

Reach that.

Impetum ferre

Bear the assault.

Impetum hostium

The violence of the enemy.

Impetum modo ferre non potuerunt

They could not even bear the assault.

Impossibilium nulla obligatio

Nobody is obliged to the impossible. Legal aphorism, owed to the jurist Juvencio Celso ( I century B.C.) and which turned into a vernacular proverb synonym of: Ad impossibile nemo tenetur (Nobody is obliged to the impossible).

Impotentia excusat legem

Impotence excuses the law. Legal aphorism by which the law excuses specific act of disabled individuals, such as prisoners, idiots, insane, etc. to whom their state prevents them from complying with it.

Impressionem dare

Launch an attack.

Improbe Neptunum accusat qui naufragium iterum fecit

The one who shipwrecks for a second time unfairly blames the sea. Latin proverb which expresses that the one who exposed to a risk should not complain for collapsing to it.

Improbis aliena virtus semper formidolosa est

The virtue of the good was always fearsome for the bad. The historian Caius Salustius Crispus (86-34 B.C.) shows with this sentence the great force of virtue to which the ones who behave bad fear.

In acceptum referre

Add to the income chapter.

In aeternum

For ever. In order to live for ever happy and independent the had to loosen in aeternum from the passions controlling him.

In albis

In blank. One being kept in albis.

In aliqua re agenda

For the performance of something.

In aliquem

Against someone.

In aliquem locum

To somewhere.

In anima vili

A vile being. Latin expression literally used to indicate the experiments done over animals in order to know the properties of chemical or toxic substances absorbed by their bodies. It is also used figuratively.

In antis

Temple having in its front two columns, or tow columns and two antas.

In aperto

In the open air, without defense.

In articulo mortis

At the hour of death.

In austri partibus

In southern regions.

In caelo quies

There is rest in the sky. Latin phrase frequently used in coat of arms.

In capita

By head. When in an intestate succession of a person there appear brothers with nephews, sons of double bond brothers, it is said that the first succeed in capita, and the second in stirpes (in lineage).

In capite

At the front of any work or operation.

In capite coronam habebat

He had a crown over his head.

In carcerem

In prison.

In casto Cereris

The Ceres celebration took place in April for eight days, by the roman ladies, who in order to prepare themselves better avoided drinking wine and had an immaculate continence: in order to show this prudent behavior it was said that these ladies were in pure Cereris.

In corpore adfecto

In an exhausted body.

In diem

Latin expression used in the forensic phrase adictio in diem o adictio a die, referring to the agreement according to which the buyer receives the thing under the condition that the sale be rescinded if within the term the seller finds who gives him more.

In dubio, pro operario

In case of doubt, in favor of the worker.

In dubio, pro reo

In case of doubt, in favor of the accused.

In eo loco

In that place.

In eo loco sunt res nostrae

Our issues are in that condition.

In extenso

In all its extent. It is used as equivalent to the adjectives, literal, extensive, not abbreviated, when dealing with copies, extracts, speeches, etc.

In extremis

In the last moments of existence, in article of death. It refers to the marriages celebrated when one of the contracting parties is in danger of death or near to that.

In face

In phase. Name of the prisons generally existing in monasteries to confine therein the friars or monks guilty of any crime.

In facie Ecclesiae

In the presence of the church. It is used when talking about the marriage ceremony, when it is celebrated in public and with the established ceremonies.

In fieri

Latin expression used to refer to what is pending to be done. Combination of charges in fieri.

In fine

At the end.

In foro medio

In the middle of the market; neutral; impartial.

In globo

In globe, in conjunct.

In gratiam alicuius

To please somebody.

In hoc signo vinces

You will succeed with this symbol. Expression referring to the cross with which this term appeared to the army of Constantine I, the Great; it is generally used referring to a phrase or flag to predict the success of a certain idea.

In hostem equos

Horses against the enemy.

In illa loca

To go to establish in those regions.

In illo tempore

In that time. Latin expression used to refer to another time or some time ago.

In imperium romanum cedere

To pass on to the power of the Romans.

In incerto esse

To be in the insecurity.

In integro mihi res est

I am still the owner of the situation.

In integrum

Totally, in a whole. Latin expression used in the forensic phrase restitutio in integrum, which indicates the reinstatement of a minor or other privileged person to all his actions and rights.

In integrum restitutio

Complete reinstatement. It is included in the Digest with the title De in Integrum Restitutionibus: About complete reinstatements. According to Julio Paulo (roman jurist, opponent and rival of Pompinianus who died in the year 235 of our time), in the Digest: integri restitutio est redintegranda rei vel causae actio (the complete reinstatement will be the action to repair the thing or the cause).

In iudicium venire

Appear before the court.

In jure cessio

Assignment of right. It was a civil way to acquire ownership which was not used in times of Justinian. It was an inorganic litis inorgánica, where the purchaser pretended to exercise a reivindicatio to which the seller or transmitter submitted. Both parties appeared, previously in agreement and before the magistrate the acquirer affirmed that the thing or the slave belonged to him under Quirites right; the magistrate asked the other whether he had to respond or alleged to the contrary; the defendant kept silence and therefore the magistrate granted the property of the thing or the slave to the plaintiff. As it can be observed the in jure cessio applied only in jure (as of right), there being no place for in judicio (at trial) Since the seller or transmitter instead of entangle the cause and exercise the litis contestatio, he assigned his right by keeping silence or accepting (injure cedit).

In litteris versari

To study.

In lucto esse

To be of lute.

In magnis et voluisse sat est

On big things, simply undertaking them is an honor. Poem of Sextus Propertius (s. 50-15 B.C.), which indicates that it is not only success what makes a man big, but the value to undertake it.

In maiorem Dei gloriam o Ad maiores Dei gloriam

To more glory of God.

In malam partem

Interpret unfavorably third parties` actions.

In manu alicuius esse

To be in the power of somebody.

In matrimonium dare

Offer in marriage.

In matrimonium locare

Give in marriage.

In medio stat virtus

Virtue is in the middle. Latin expression used to indicate that all extremes are vicious.

In molere vultus tui vesceris

You will eat the bread with the sweat of your forehead.

In multiloquio non deerit peccatum

In the much talking does not fail the sin.

In naturalibus

Naked, in skin.

In nomine

On behalf.

In obscuro vitam

To live in the dark.

In obvio alicui esse

To find somebody.

In officio manere

To keep faithful.

In ore sunt omnia

Everything is reflected in the expression of the face.

In pace

In peace. Prison, vault, underground prison cell of a cloister, where the ones guilty of a scandal were kept for ever. Similarly, secret place where a person is kept for ever.

In pectore

In the heart, in the mind. Latin expression used in the name: cardenal in pectore, with which the ecclesiastical raised to the cardenalicia dignity but which proclamation and institution the Pope reserves for a later time.

In pectus

In the heart; take on an activity.

In perpetuum

Perpetually; forever.

In petto

Latin expression used in the name: cardinal in petto, synonym of cardinal in pectore.

In poculis

Between cups, that is, drinking. It is used of the ones who try to solve or adjust all the issues or business with the cup in the hand. Latin classics used to say inter pocula.

In populos

In bodies of nation.

In portibus infidelium

I places or countries of unfaithful.

In primis

Above all.

In promptu

It is applied to the things that are at hand or are done suddenly. Take a position or commit an act in promptu. It flourished in Italy during the Renaissance.

In puribus

Nude, with the skin. It is a vernacular corruption of the Latin technical phrase in puris naturalibus (in a purely natural condition).

In quovis

Legal term which is generally used in maritime insurance contracts, which jeans that it was entered into without indication of the vessel, the insured obliging himself to verify the name of the ship within a certain period of time, upon the lapse of which the insurer can rescind the contract in case the insured fails to comply with said obligation.

In sententia

In his view.

In singulis

Over each point in particular; keep motionless; persist in a condition.

In situ

In the location, in the place.

In solidum

Totally, for the whole or total. Generally used to express the power or obligation common to two or more persons and which involves each of them totally.

In solutum

As part payment. It is used in forensic language in the phrase datio in solutum Generally used when the debtor gives the creditor as payment of a debt a movable or immovable thing. Insolutum por in solutum is barbarism.

In statu quo

In the same state or situation of before. Generally used in diplomatic language.

In tempore opportuno

In proper time.

In utroque (o) in utroque iure

In one and another, or in one and another law. Latin expression used to indicate a graduate or doctor is also in civil and canonic law.

In via

At the foot of the path.

In via virtuti nulla est via

There is no path closed to the value. Term or motto of Henry IV of France.

Incerta pro certis

The uncertain to the safe.


Incest. Sin of the fleshly committed by relatives within the grades marriage is prohibited. Fleshly commerce between persons united by parental bond within the grades marriage is prohibited.

Incidit in Scyllam cupiens vitare Charybdin

You have fallen in Escilia when trying to escape from Caribdis. It shows that frequently when trying to avoid a risk another similar or bigger is incurred.

Inclusio unius, exclusio alterius

The inclusion of one involves the exclusion of another. Rule of legal interpretation which indicates that when in a legal provision or any other document certain persons or things are cited expressly, it should be understood that from them are excluded any other.

Indicere mercatum

To tout a fair.

Indignae iniuriae

Undeserved injustice.

Indignari quod

Get angry because.

Indocti discant, et ament meminisse periti

Ignorant learn it and learned try not to forget it. It is wrongly assigned to Horace but it of Carlos Juan Francisco Henault (1685-1770), who wrote it at the beginning of his Chronological Compendium of the History of France (1744) referring to the significant importance that specific things and historical facts being convenient to everybody, whether learned or not learned.

Insidias alicui

Ambush against somebody.

Integrae sententiae

Issued thoughts, impartial.

Intellectorium commune

The synthetic activity of the spirit is expressed in all the status of conscience; from the physiological point of view this unifying function is represented by the brain. Some physiologists and psychologist by analogy with the sensorium commune, have used that term to name the centers located in the anterior and superior portion of the cerebral cortex where it is supposed it is located the intellective capacity to transform sensations into ideas. The conceptual elaboration has an inorganic nature and the idea of intellectorium commune is only applicable in a material system.

Intellexi ex tuis litteris

I have realized by your letters.

Intelligenti pauca

To the intelligent a little. Equivalent to the Spanish phrase: To the one who knows little words are enough. So that the term has a complete meaning it should say: Intelligenti pauca sufficiunt (to the intelligent little is enough).

Intentis oculis

With attention.

Inter arma silent leges

In the middle of the guns the laws are silent. Saying of Cicero by which it is expressed that when there is an armed fight only force controls being the laws completely forgotten and abandoned.

Inter duces convenerat, ut

It was a thing agreed upon by the judges, that.

Inter duos litigantes tertius gaudet

Between two litigants there is a third who is happy.

Inter ipsos

Between themselves.

Inter se

Each other.

Inter sicarios

Of murder.

Intercludere alicui aditum

Close the entry to somebody.

Intercludere aliquem aditu

Prevent somebody from entering.

Interdicit omnibus ne quemquam interficiant

Prohibit everybody to kill anybody.

Interdicta adipiscendae possessionis

Interdiction to acquire possession.

Interdicta recuperandae possessionis

Interdiction to recover the possession.

Interdicta retinendae possessionis

The interdiction to retain. It was of two types: Interdictum uti possidetis, to keep the possession of immovable property; interdictum utrubi, for the movables.

Interdicto de homine libero exhibendo

To show the prohibition of the free man.


Interdiction. Trial having a summary nature in which without consideration to the property issue, generally a possessory action is exercised or either one special and over real property as a provisional or preventive measure to prevent a potential injury or damage. Interdiction appeared in the ancient Rome in order to guarantee rapidly the possession and the use of the public thing. To this effect the magistrate decided the issue upon the first appearance of the litigants and he granted a decision or decree referred to interdictum by which both or either parties was prevented from doing any act (prohibiting interdiction) to restore restitutive interdiction or to exhibit a thing (exhibitory interdiction). In case of disobedience there was the Sponsio paenalis, as well as the restipulatio (mutual stipulation) for the disobedient, that is the duty to pay a certain amount to the other party in case of being the decision against him this duty being undertaken by formal promise. Later the sponsio paenalis as well as the restipulatio disappeared, the alter being an equal promise made by the opposing party the purpose of both being to make the parties think over the consequences of the conflict. In addition to these there were the interdicta retinendae possessionis, that is the interdiction to retain; the interdita recuperandae possessionis or of recovering, and the interdicta adipiscendae possessionis or of acquiring. The interdiction retinendae and recuperandae also applied by analogy to personal easements. So there was the interdiction itinere actuque privato, on behalf of the one who had made use of the right of way for 30 days and without vicious manner; the interdiction of aqua quotidiana et aestiva, for the one who had on good faith taken the use of the waters of another for the whole year or just the summer; the interdiction of de rivis, to keep the possession and be able to restore the water channels; the interdiction of de fonte, to support the right to drink water from the fountain of another; and fonte reficiendo, in order to take it back; and the interdiction of cloacis (privatis), for the clearing and recomposition of construction workers. The uti possidetis protected the possession of predial easements. In addition there was the interdictum of precarius for the restitution of a thing assigned to another under the condition of taking it back; the interdictum de clandestina possessione, used when the possession of the immovable was lost clandestinely; the interdictum Savianum, by which the creditor without possession was given the same right the secured creditor had; the interdictum demolitorium, which was the one of new contruction where the injured was able to make a private protest by which the owner was obliged to stop the construction meanwhile till the final legal decision on the issue, and the same order, cauctio damni infecti, that is of demolition, in which the magistrate granted the claimant the entry in the possession of the ruined building and even transferred the rights of the owner over it the surety to repair what could derive from the fall of the thing threatening a ruin; the interdictum quod vi clam, in order to prevent a construction on a ground having right over, that is clandestine construction; the interdictum of glande legenda, that supported the force entry to the property of another in those cases provided for by law; the interdictum de tabulis exhibendis, the purpose of which was the presentation of a person or thing for the verification of it; the interdictum de ulfore exhibendo acducenda, granted to the husband to claim the restitution of the woman by the one who had taken her illegally, the interdictum quorum bonorum, used for provisional custody of the right of succession.

Interdictum de clandestina possessione

Interdiction about the clandestine possession . Used when the possession of a real property was lost in a clandestine manner.

Interdictum de precario

Interdiction about the precarious. For the restitution of the thing assigned to another under the condition of recovering it.

Interdictum demolitorium

Is the one where the injured was able to make a private protest which obliged the owner to stop the work meanwhile till final legal decision being given on the issue, and the same order, cautio damni infecti, that is of demolition, in which the magistrate granted the claimant the entry in the possession of the ruined building and even transferred the rights of the owner over it the surety to repair what could derive from the fall of the thing threatening a ruin.

Interdictum Savianum

Interdiction by which the creditor without possession was given the same right as the one the secured creditor had.

Interposita persona

The one participating in a legal act on behalf and for the benefit of another, pretending to act in his own name.

Intolerabilius nihil est quam femina dives

Nothing more unbearable than a rich woman. Words of Decius Junius Juvenalis (58-138) in his Satire VI.

Intra legem

Within the law.

Intra quinque annos

In less than five years.

Intuita persona

Examined, viewed, seen the person.

Invehi in hostes

Launch against the enemy.

Invidiae sum alicui

I am envied by one.

Invidiam habeo ex re

I am envied because of something.

Ipso facto

By the same thing.

Ipso iure

By the same right.

Iram qui vincit, hostem superat maximum

Who controls his anger, defeats his greatest enemy. Appreciates the value of moderation.

Ire dormitum

To lie; to keep ineffective.

Is adeo tu est

That is you precisely.

Is damnum dat qui jubet dari

The injury is caused by the one who orders to be done. It sows that the blame for the commission of a bad action rests on the one causing it instead of the means or direct agent.

Is fecit cui prodest

Was done by the one who took advantage of what was done. Ancient legal postulate which is generally applied when it is suspected that the criminal is the one who took advantage of the fruits of the crime.

Is in illum sum quem tu me esse vis

I appear to his eyes as you want.

Is sum ut

I am a man to.

Isola sita est contra portum

An island is located in front of the port.

Ista vulnera

Those injuries.

Ita di me ament, ut

I put Gods as witnesses of...

Ita sunt admissi ne senatus eis daretur

They were able to enter, on condition that they were not received at senate audience.

Ita vivam ut innocens sum

I live like that, as I am innocent.


Path, tubular way. Portion or area of a way in other times of the ancient Rome used for the passage of pedestrians, horsemen and litters. They should have two feet width.

Iter criminis

Way of the crime

Iter facere

Move, travel.

Iubeo gaudere te

I wish you to be happy.



Iudiciis indignus

Unworthy of judging.

Iudicio meo

In my opinion.



Iudicum animos

The mood of the judges.


Oath. Affirmation or negation of a thing offering Gods as witness, by himself or through his creatures. All ancient philosophers, convinced of the importance of the swear, suggested the same as legislators, to only swear in important and serious cases and trials.

Iurare in patrios cineres

Swear for the ash of his father.

Iurare in verba magistri

Swear for the words of the teacher.

Iureiurando aliquem obstringere

Oblige someone under oath

Iuris tantum

Only of law. Expression that under forensic terms it means that presumption accepts evidence to the contrary .



Ius (su genitivo es iuris)


Ius ac fas omne delere

Step on any divine and human law.

Ius ad rem

Right to the issue. See Ad rem.

Ius civitatis

The right of a city.

Ius devolutum

In England, the right of the Church to appoint a vicar for the vacant church, if the owner of it does not do so within the term set forth by the law.

Ius dicere

Administer justice.

Ius est

Is of law, it is permitted; justice.

Ius est ars boni et aequi

The law is the art of the good and the bad. Phrase which is a perfect definition of law given by the Digest.

Ius est ut

It is according to law.

Ius et norma loquendi

Law and rule of language. Phrase of Horace ad Pisos in Poetics the precise words of it are: Sus, penes quem et jus et norma loquendi and which mean that the use is the arbitrator of the manner of talking, who has the right to introduce the forms of language and establish the rule of the same.

Ius gentium

Law of the people. According to the ancient law, it was the law that the Romans applied to foreigners. Nowadays it has more sense and it is the international law.

Ius imperii

Law of the emporium or the government.

Ius Latii

Law of Lazio.

Ius primae noctis

Law of the first night. The known lord’s right is the ancient law given to some feudal lords to take the virginity of the bride before the husband who was rescued after the payment of metallic tribute.

Ius privatum

Private law. The roman referred in this way to the right of the individuals between themselves, that is to say, to civil law.

Ius publicum

Public law. Roman called like this what is common to the universality of the citizens of a nation, as regards their relation with the State, that is to say the political right.

Ius relictae

Law of the abandoned. In Scotland the right of the wife to a portion of the personal property of her husband upon his death: If there are children from the marriage, she is entitled to a third otherwise to the half.

Ius sanguinis

Law of blood. Term used in international law to express that the law to be applied to a foreigner is the one of his parents or deceased, that is of the country from which he comes, and not of the one where he is. It is also referred to as law of the country and it is the system which is used in all the nations with some changes.

Ius soli

Law of soil. Term used in international law to express that the law to be applied to the foreigner is the territorial one and the one of the country from which he comes; this system being applied in almost all the American countries.

Ius suum contra aliquem

Defend his right against somebody.

Iusiurandum conservare

Keep his oath.

Iussa eficere

Carry out the orders.

Iussu populi

By people’s will.

Iusta militaria

The duties of the military life.

Iustae nuptiae

Fair wedding. This is the manner in which the Romans referred to the legal marriage.

Iustis de causis

For fair reasons.

Iustum et tenacem propositi virum

The man fair and strong willed in his purpose. First line of the Ode where Horace appreciates the fair and at the same time firm and strong willed who never losses his equanimity, and who even if the mentally disturbed orb slumped over him, its ruins would bury the fearless.

Iustum iter

Normal period.

Iustus dolor

Bearable pain.

Iuxta ac, iuxta atque


Iuxta accedere

Go nearer.

Iuxta aestimo

More of the same.

Iuxta finem vitae

Towards the end of life.

Iuxta finem vitae

Towards the end of life.

Iuxta viam

Next to the pathway, immediately after.

Iuxta viam

Next to the pathway.

Justiniano estableció seis oficinas en la prefectura del Africa, y en este tiempo se hablaba de scrinarii para todas las prefecturas. La de Oriente tenía cuatro oficinas para las diócesis de Asia, Ponto, Tracia y Oriente, además del scrinium urbis par

La acción reivindicatoria es la acción real que corresponde al propietario en una cosa contra el que la posee o detenta, con objeto de hacer reconocer su derecho de propiedad y lograr la restitución de aquella. "

La existencia de la provocatio aparece ya en la primera época de Roma, pues Horacio, condenado por los duumviri perduellionis a la pena de muerte, apeló al pueblo, quien se la conmutó por otros castigos. Se discute si se daba la provocatio contra las d

La provocación al pueblo que primeramente debió existir como costumbre (mores majorum) fue consagrada por la Ley Valeria hecha inmediatamente después de la expulsión de los reyes (año 245 de Roma), y por otras posteriores. Fue favorecida con la creac

Las grandes familias aristocráticas poseían en general acerca de su atrium (pórtico delantero) una sala especialmente destinada a guardar sus tabletas, o sea los documentos relativos a sus negocios, títulos de nobleza, etc. llamada tablinum. No pocos

Lo que es indudable es que este depósito, instalado en la dependencia del Senado, debe ser considerado como la primera cuna de los archivos de Roma. Su importancia fue acrecentándose de siglo en siglo durante toda la existencia de la República, hasta q

Los romanos tomaron medidas muy rigurosas para preservar de toda alteración y deterioro los documentos depositados en sus archivos, sobre todo los del Estado. En medio de las luchas políticas que tuvieron como consecuencia la caída de la República, lo


Manus. Of the powers of the paterfamilias abrogated in the Justinian period. The other was the mancipium. The manus was the power of the paterfamilias over the woman when the marriage was verified by confarreatio, coemptio or usus. Pure Civil law institution prior to the patria postestas (parens patriae), therefore it is not to be accepted the opinion by which the former is based on the this one. Manus was achieved upon the celebration of certain acts as described by Gaius when he says: Olim itaque tribus modis in manum conveniebant, usu, farreo, coemptione (tribes originally agreed upon the use of the manus by use, farreo, coempcion). The oldest must have been the usus, since in cases of woman kidnapping are found in Indo-European people. In the roman law the first to appear must have been the confarreatio, because of its religious nature corresponding to the character of the ancient roman people and as being exclusive of the noble it is implied that it was the manner to achieve the manus in the romulean state. When the plebeian became part of the city they could not celebrate the confarreatio, since they lacked domestic cult, therefore upon being permitted the marriage between patricians and plebeians by virtue of the law Canuleya in the 309 of Rome it turned out to be necessary to find a manner common to all, it was the coemptio which being an application of the mancipatio, Was able to be celebrated by all the ones having the conmercium. The legal position of the woman in manu is expressed by the roman jurists by saying she has the position of daughter (loco filiae habetur), not in the sense of equality but of similarity. She was after the son since he was always preferred for being considered the prosecutor of the domestic cult and the family surname, which was not held by the women; they could neither be subject to ownership and they could only own for the pater familias, with the exception that women were entitled to a res uxoriae (things of wife) in case of divorce. As a consequence of the manus the woman underwent a capitis diminutio minima, so breaking bonds with her civil family and entering with her being and things to the family of her husband as daughter or granddaughter depending on whether it be sui iuris or a alieni iuris; as a consequence of which her personality and estate was absorbed, being her debts extinguished, even praetorian law granted the creditors useful actions in order to avoid damages to themselves the purpose of which was to claim their credits and to go against the property of the dowry and the ones acquired under the marriage, these actions having as a basis the fiction of not having suffered the woman the capitis diminutio; also as a consequence of this the woman acquired the right to ab intestate succession over the property of her husband as daughter of his and sister of her children. The power of the husband over the woman in manu were legal and economical. As a consequence of the first, if he was pater familias, as a magistrate he was able to judge the woman, imposing punishments over her which would go from death to detraction of a portion of the dowry, even though the marital power was limited in this case more than in any other by the consilium domesticum (domestic council).On the economic side the husband used to take for himself the estate of the woman the same as all the purchase she hand made, and he was able to emancipate and offer as punishment the woman herself, these powers having disappeared is on the imperial time. The manus terminated as a consequence of the following: 1) the death of the husband or the woman ; by the medium and maximum capitis diminutio of the husband; 2) by an act contrary to the one by which it was created: in the case of the confarreatio it dissolved by the difarreatio, formal ceremony celebrated in the house of the husband with the participation of the priest and the woman renouncing to the cult of the husband by means of imprecations; in the case of the coemptio, by the emancipation of the woman to a third person ; regarding the usus, once acquired there was no contrary act able to dissolve it; however, before the end of the year the woman was able to interrupt it by not going to her husband ´s address three continuing nights (usurpatio trinoctii, use of three nights). In addition to the real manus there was another referred to as formulate performed under the way of coemptio which served the following purposes: 1) Interimendorum sacrorum cause, that is to free the woman from the costs of a private cult (sacral). Cicero (106-64 B.C.) refers to this type of coemptio in his sentence pro Lucius Licinius Murena. The woman generally celebrated the coemptio with an old man therefore breaking the bonds with the husband’s family and not having to pay for the cost of his cult. Rodolfo de Jhering (1818-1892) says that women emancipated slaves for that purpose to thereafter marry them. According to Karlowa, in these cases the woman married an old man since she would soon be free and she would inherit him. Tito Maccio Plauto (254-184) and Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43) talk about the senes coemptionales (the old coemcionales). 2) Testamenti faciendi gratia (testamentary coemptio). When it was allowed for the woman to grant a hill, tutors denied their consent in order not to lose the property they would be entitled to under ab-intestate as a consequence of the rule according to which the woman who went on being part or her original family could not testate. So that a woman could do a testament she surrendered herself under coemptio to a good man who bound himself to emancipate her, so she was sui iuris and could testate. 3) Tutelae evitandae gratia, in order to free the woman from the fatherly or tutelary despotism. In this case, after the formulate of the coemptio matrimonii causa (coempcion by reason of marriage) the pactum fiduciae was added (pact of trust), by which the husband undertook to emancipate the woman. Fathers and tutors oppose to this type of marriage, until case law obtained its acceptance during the last times of the Republic. In the ancient law the only known marriage was the one with manus; but in the last times of the Republic already existed the sine manu, introduced by custom and later recognized by a law of the V century or beginning of the VI of Rome. The sine manu marriage became more and more general therefore being reduced the application of the manus. The reason might be that in the sine manus marriage the woman did not break the agnation with her family; so fathers and mostly tutors were interested in favoring it. Even though in this type of marriage women Had more independence and could separate in case of being abused , it hurt her children, since in case of their death abs intestate her property passed to the agnate and not her children, and if the woman was alieni iuris she obtained nothing with that marriage which did not free her from the parens patriae or custody. Fathers were more interested and above all tutors since as agnation did not break the former could maintain more rights over the woman and the latter could inherit her ab intestate. From the three types of caerse in manu, the usus was the first one to disappear; it existed at the time of Cicero, but Gaius considers it as disappeared, in part because of the laws and in part because of out of desuetude. The confarreatio was not so frequent and in times of Alexander Tiberius it was difficult to find three patrician born of the feasted marriage in order to chose from them a flamin of Jupiter, in order to avoid this decay and due to religious interest a law of the year 23 A.C. provided that the women getting married by confarreatio, at least the ones of the flamins of Jupiter, were under the manus from the religious point of view, but not from the civil; with this restriction and within the circle of the flamins the confarreatio was kept until the fall of the paganism. The coemptio was still used to produce a real manus during the times of Gaius (s.II); regarding the formulary, when the emperor Adrinaus (76-138) abolished the inability that the coemptio testamentary used the fill in, he removed its reason and on the IV century of our time the coemptio was completely out of use. The last mention to the manus is found in a portion of Emilio Papinianus (142-212) and another of Julio Paulo, included in Mosaicorum et romanorum legum collatio (Collection of the mosaic and roman laws).

Manus Dei

Name of an ancient plaster, out of use at present.

Manus Guidonis

Hand of Guidus or guidonian, musical and harmonic hand.

Manus habent et non palpabunt

They have hands and will not touch. Words taken by the Psalm 115, 5, where it is said that ¡dolos "have mouth and do not talk, have eyes and do not see". Referring figuratively to the ones who do not want to listen to reason no matter how clear it be.

Manus injectio

One of the five legis actiones or quinque creates the agendi. It was a proceeding by which the creditor took control before the magistarte of the debtor, and if he did not satisfy immediately his obligation or did not offer a bailee (vindex, guarantor), the creditor took him home, and kept him as prisoner for sixty days upon the passage of which, if the debtor still failed to pay his debt, the creditor could kill him or sell him trans Tiberim as slave. At the beginning it was useful to claim the fulfillment of those duties where the creditor was granted, for example, in the case of a confessed debt; upon being established other legis actiones in order to claim and declare the fulfillment of the duties, the manus injectio, even though it permitted to initiate an action (as occurred when the vindex denied the legality of the use of it), it was a proceeding for the execution of judgments already decided. The physical arrest was permitted under the ancient law in many cases without it being necessary the appearance of the authority: This occurred with the father with respect to the child subject to his authority, with the owner with respect to the slave, and with any citizen with respect to another citizen who being called to court by the former in jus vocatus (called by law), did not want to appear, and the origin of the legis actio per manus injectionemen can be seen in the period in which to the judicial organization preceded an out of court proceeding, under which a man who was offended by another took control of him by force in order to punish him by himself, and he only compelled to stop when a third person took part in favor of the weaker. At the beginning the manus injectio was granted: 1) Without it being necessary a prior trial when they consisted in confessed money, by virtue of the nexum or the inheritance per damnationem (by conviction). 2) Under another legis actio if there was another judgment the debtor did not (manus injectio judicati). 3) Manus injectio pro judicato made as if there had been a trial, by virtue of having been assimilated a great number of cases to a legal sentence. They were: the one of the public law, which gave the sponsor a manus injectio of this type against the main debtor; the one of the furia law of sponsu, which granted against the creditor the sponsor and the fidei promissor of Italy who might have paid him more than his share of the debt and the one referring to the registration of Titus Lucretius Carus (99-55), that talks about a popular manus injectio pro iudicato, established upon provocation of the roman current law, against the one depositing dirt, took a dead body or did a funerary sacrifice in a holy grove, in order to demand a fine. In the formula mentioned by the creditor in this manus injectio, instead of saying quod tu mihi iudicatus sive damnatus it expressed the cause and added: ob eam rem ego tibi pro iudicato manum iniicio. In all the other aspects it did not differ from the manus injection iudicati. 4) Pure Manus injectio, also permitted without the need of a prior judgment, but where the debtor had the power to vindex of himself, opposing himself to the act itself (manum sibi depellere et pro se lege agere licebat), falling into as in the case of the vindex, in the punishment of duplo if he was not successful. This kind of manus injectio was referred to as pure, because the creditor did only say alter having mentioned the cause, ob eam rem ego tibi manum injicio, without adding pro judicato. It represents a considerable mitigation of the nature of the manus injectio, since it turned this generally into an introducer of a litigation, since the defendant was able to raise the issue as to whether there was or not a credit, this issue having to be decided by the magistrate himself, which would give rise or not to an executive proceeding. A Vallia law of the middle of the VI century and first third of the VII of Rome, turned into pure all the manus injections, except in the case of iudicatum and depensum, therefore the mitigation extended without removing the benefits of the creditors who could claim for the manus injectio without it being necessary a litigation when it was accepted, while the creditors to which the laws did not grant the manus injectio, nor pignoris capio, should have to apply another legis actio before claiming for the enforcement.

Manus manum fricat

One hand washes the other. It is applied to two empty persons who mutually flatter. It is equivalent to the Spanish phrase: one hand washes the other and both wash the face.

Manus manum lavat

The hand washed the hand. Identical to manus manum fricat.

Natura non facit saltus

Nature does not jump. Scientific aphorism used to express that there is no interruption between the natural species and the genres since despite their diversity there is always something between them that makes them similar or relates them.

Natura simplicibus gaudet

Nature is pleased with small things.

Naturam ducem sequi

Follow nature as a guide.

Navem conscendere

To sail.

Navem solvere

To set sail

Navem subducere

To run ashore a vessel.

Navis in portum coniecta est

The vessel was released at port.

Navis oneraria

Transportation ship.

Ne agamus

Don’t do.

Ne cupide agerent, atque... ut malent

(To be disposed) to do nothing for passion as opposed to prefer on the contrary...

Ne ego homo infelix fuit

Probably I was an unfortunate man.

Ne fugae quidem patebat locus

There was no possible place not even for the escape.

Ne homines quidem

Not even men.

Ne illi vehementere errant qui …

Certainly the ones that ….are really mistaken...

Ne longus sit

To abbreviate.

Ne puero gladium

Not to trust the sword to a child.

Ne quid nimis

Nothing too much.. Maxim imputed to Solon (640-558 a.C.), one of the 7 Greek wise men, transcribed into Latin by Publius Terentius (190-158 B.C.). It means that all excess is dangerous.

Ne repugnetis

Do not resist.

Ne sint in senectute vires

Even though there is not strength at the old age.

Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice modus

Do not make God participate unless the drama deserves to be untangled by God. Dictate of Horace, in the Poetic Art on the tragedy. He suggests to drama authors to be prudent when using God at the end of tragedies so making the Deus ex machina participate only when the type of play deserves it.

Nec latuere doli fratrem Iunonis

Not even the deceits of Juno were hidden to his brother.

Nec litteras didicit, nec natare

He did not learn to read or anything. It is used to refer to a man totally ignorant.

Nec mortale sonans

Voice which does not have mortal accent. Hemistich of Virgil’s in Aeneid VI.

Nec pluribus impar

Equally to many, inferring suns. Motto of Louis XIV, King of France, who made the majesty of his throne to be represented with the shape of the sun under which those words were written. He wanted to express that his glory and magnificence were bigger than many suns, which is bigger than anything existing.

Nec plus ultra (o) non plus ultra

The maximum.

Necessarii Pompeii

Pompey supporters.

Necesse est

It is necessary.

Necessitas caret lege

Need lacks law. It is used to indicate that what we do as a consequence of an imperative need or a bigger one cannot be attributed to us.

Necessitas temporis

The urgency of the moment.

Negotia publica

State’s businesses.

Negotiorum gestor

Business manager, kind of agent.

Nemine contradicente

Nobody contradicting. Words used at the Court to express a general agreement.

Nemine discrepante

Without contradiction, disagreement or opposition of any kind. By unanimous vote; by all the votes.

Neminem fugit quid sit optimum

Nobody is hidden on what is the best.

Nemo beatus est nisi sapiens

Nobody is blessed only the wise.

Nemo contentus sua sorte

Nobody is happy with his luck.

Nemo cum alterius damno locupletior fieri debe

Nobody should benedict from somebody’s detriment. Digest’s rule which states that it is prohibited to benefit at the expense of somebody else.

Nemo dat quod non habet

Nobody gives what he lacks. Disgest rule which states that nobody can give to another more rights than the ones he has.

Nemo est qui…

There is nobody that ...

Nemo in sua patria propheta

Nobody is a prophet in his country. Words of Christ.

Nemo invitus compellitur ad communionem

Nobody can be obliged to own together with another. Roman law rule.

Nemo non

All without failing one.

Nemo potest duobus dominis servire

Nobody can serve two lords.

Nemo praesumitur malus nisi probetur

Nobody can be considered bad if that is not proved. Legal aphorism due to the fact that the crime and the evil are an exception, therefore it is necessary to provide conclusive evidence in order to be considered an offender.

Nemo praesumitur malus nisi probetur

Nobody is considered a prophet in his country.


By no means.

Neque caecum ducet, neque amentem consultorem

Not to accept a blind as a guide, or a weak man as counselor. It expresses the inconvenience and danger of letting somebody be guided by incompetent persons.

Neque in bonis neque in malis velis esse singularis

You do want to distinguish neither in the good nor in the bad. Aphorism which condemns the excessive eagerness to show oneself.

Neque interesse, ipsosne interficiant, impedimentisne exuant

And there is no difference between crucifying them or depriving them of their baggage.

Neque longius…

Not for any more time no...

Neque semper arcum tendir Apolo

Not always does Apollo have his arch stretch. Words of Horace which indicate that not always we should work but that resting is also necessary.

Nescio quid de nobis futurum sit

I do not know what to do of ourselves.

Nescio quo pacto

I do not know how.

Nescis quid vesper serus trahat

You ignore what the night may bring. It is used to indicate that we should not trust in tomorrow since we do not know whether there may be something that prevents us from reaching our purposes.

Nescit vox missa reverti

The word that is not released cannot be taken. Expression of Poetic Art of Horace which teaches us that we should be very limited and concerned with our words so that we do not regret saying them. The King Alfonso the wise says: "Every man should keep his word a lot, since afterwards gets out of the mouth, the man cannot prevent it from being said".


Confinement, Sale contract. When the debtor was unable to pay upon maturity he was delivered to the creditor for the scale and weight, however this was cause of mancipium only from the civil laws referred to as Jus Papiridium (VII century B.C.) onwards, since before them, in those cases the debtor was taken as slave.

Nihil actum reputans si quid superesset agendum

Believing there was nothing done while something was pending to be done.

Nihil admirari

Not to wonder on anything. Answer said to be given by Pythagoras to anybody asking him whether he wondered about something.

Nihil aliud loquor nisi de

I say nothing but only about.

Nihil aliud nisi

Not another thing but, not another thing that.

Nihil causae dico quin

I do not oppose to.

Nihil causae est quin

There is no reason against.

Nihil de mortuis nisi bonum

About the dead only the good should be said. Suggestion based on charity.

Nihil de principe, parum de Deo

Nothing of the prince, few things of God.

Nihil difficile amanti

There is nothing difficult for the one who loves. Words of Cicero.

Nihil est in intellectu, quod prius non sit in sensu

There is nothing in the intelligence which was not first in the senses. Philosophical maxim of an unknown author cited by Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) in an affirmative manner.

Nihil facere aliquid

Not the believe in one thing.

Nihil haud

Not so much.

Nihil humani a me alienum puto

Nothing that is human do I consider far from me. Words of Terentius which warn us on the fact that we can suffer the same sins, misfortunes and addictions as the others.

Nihil lacryma citius arescit

Nothing dries more quickly than a tear. Words of Cicero.

Nihil medium est

There is no middle. Latin proverb applied when we should choose from two equally bad parties.

Nihil mortalibus arduum est

There is nothing impossible to the man. Words of Horace (Ode I) addressed to Virgilus.

Nihil novi

No news.

Nihil novum sub sole

There is nothing new under the sun.

Nihil pensi habere

To have no qualms.

Nihil perterritus est

He did not terrify not even a little.

Nihil probat qui nimium probat

Nothing is proved by the one who proves too much.

Nihil sciri potest, ne id ipsum quidem

Nothing can be known, not even this.

Nihil scribo; lego autem libenter

I do not write anything but read with great pleasure.

Nihil tam absurdum, quod non dictum sit ab aliquo philosophorum

There is no nonsense that has not been said by a philosopher.

Nihil tibi interest

Nothing matters to you.

Nihil vita antiquius existimare

To have nothing in a higher position than life.

Nihilo secius

However, not for that.

Nimia venignitas

Excessive kindness.

Nimium ne credere colori

Do not trust so much on the brightness of its color. End of a poem of Virgilus addressed by the priest Coridon to Alejo. It has been interpreted as: Do not trust appearances.


From the Greek nymphe: small lips of the vulva, nymph and of the obsession: craziness, disordered wish. Sexual hyperesthesia of the woman. It depends on the peripheral or central cause, it may be caused by the genital itching, the eczema and the effect of some toxics.

Nisi forte

Unless that by chance.

Nisi forte insanit

Unless he is crazy.

Nitimur in vestitum semper, cupimusque negata

We are always tempted by the prohibited and we wish the things that we are denied. (Ovidius in Loves).

Nives capitis

The chains.

Nobili genere natus

Born from a noble family.

Nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus

Virtue is the only true nobility.

Noctis erat medium

It was midnight

Noctuas Athenas affere

Take owls to Athens.

Nocturna versate suam, versate diurna

Browse them during the day, browse them at night. Poem of Horace in Poetic Art where he suggests the young writers to develop their own style and ideas based on the Greek authors and to study their works during the day and the night.

Nocumentum documentum

What hurts teaches. It suggests that pain is a very efficient training. In Greek it was said pathemata mathemata, sufferings are training.

Nolebas aut non audebas

You did not want or you did not dare.

Noli committere ut

Do not give opportunity to.

Nolie dare sanctum canibus, neque mitatis margaritas vestras ad porcos

Do not intend to give the dogs what is blessed, do not throw your pearls to the pigs. It teaches that holy things should be given a holy treatment.

Noliti judicare et non judicabimini

Do not judge and you will not be judged. Words of Christ.


I would not want.

Nolo alicui

To have distaste against somebody.

Nominavit nobis

Has designated for us. Formula used in the pontifical bulls which gave the canonic institution to the bishop appointed by the French government.

Non (o haud) nimis

Not so much.

Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro

Not even for the whole gold of the world is freedom sold. Freedom is such a valuable property for men that understandably, is placed before all the gold of the world.

Non causa bis in idem

Two times over the same. Legal maxim by which the same offence is not subjected to more than one prosecution, unless it is proved in the second offence that there was fraud in the first offence.

Non causa pro causa

There is no cause for a cause.

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum

Not anybody is granted to go to Corinth.

Non debet, cui plus licet, id quod minus est non licere

The one who is not permitted the most should be permitted the less. Rule 21 of Title 17, book 50 of the Digest. On the contrary the law that permits the less should be interpreted as prohibiting the most.Consequently the one who should donor by law can also sell; and on the contrary the one who cannot sell let alone donor.

Non decet

It is not convenient.

Non deserit alta

Do not abandon the summit.

Non dubito

I do not doubt.

Non dubito quin

I do not doubt that.

Non eget testibus

Does not need witnesses.

Non est (o) non erat, hic locus

It is not or it was not here the place. Words of Horace in his Epistle to the Pisos, applied when opportunity is trespassed.

Non est ad astra mollis a terris via

It is not a threshed or easy path the one that goes from the earth to the stars. It means that immortality is not achieved without great efforts.

Non est bonum esse hominem solum: faciamus ei adjutorium simile sibi

It is not good that men be alone: let do a help similar to him.

Non est discipulus supra magistrum

The student should not be over the teacher. It is used to express the obedience to the superiors.

Non est falsum sine dolo

There is no deceitfulness without duress. Legal aphorism which expresses that for there to be punishable deceitfulness it is not enough that it has been materially committed but that it has been committed with criminal and fraud intent, that is with the deliberate intent to alter the truth.

Non est magnum ingenium sine melancholia

There is not great cleverness neither gloom.

Non est tanti

There is not so much for.

Non excidit mihi

I have not forgotten that.

Non expedire

It is not convenient.

Non exprobrandi causa

Without intention to throw it on the face.

Non fuit fortis aut prudens

It was neither brave nor judicious.

Non fulgetis extrinsecus, gloria vestra intus est

You don’t bright on the outside, your glory is in the inside. Words of Seneca which mean that the man is worth more for his moral qualities than for his outside clothes.

Non fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem

Not to take out smoke from the light, but splendor from the smoke. It means that from big things fussy and insignificant consequences should not be inferred, but on the contrary significant consequences should be inferred.

Non habere nauci aliquem

To take no attention of anything.

Non hic locus est ut

This is not the place of.

Non id ago

I do not engage in this.

Non ignara mali, miseris seccurrere disco

Knowing the evil myself, s‚ helping the unfortunate. Line of Virgilus applicable to the sympathetic persons having experienced the misfortune.

Non insolo pane vivit homo

The man does not only live on food. Words of Christ.

Non libet augurari

I do not like to risk prophesies.

Non liquet

It is not clear.

Non maxime

Not at all.

Non mediocris

Not general.

Non metuo, quin

I do not doubt that no.

Non minimum


Non missura cutem nisi plena cruoris hirudo

Non modo non... sed etiam

Not only not... but also.

Non modo non... sed ne... Quidem

Not only not... but also not even.

Non modo... sed etiam

Not only... but also.

Non multa, sed multum

Not many things, but a lot. Words assigned to Pliny the young (62-114), expressing that it is better to learn few important things rather than many unimportant ones.

Non munera pecunia

Not in constant currency.

Non nihilo aestimare

Assess in something.

Non obstantibus

It refers to a overturning clause by which those acts deriving from the roman chancery overturn the rules established by the pontifical constitutions, provincial councils and even the general councils..

Non olet

It does not smell bad. Latin words referring to the money; it seems they were repeated by Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, emperor from 69 to 79, when he heard that his son Titus criticized him for having imposed a tax on sewers.

Non omne, quod licet, honestum est

Not everything that is lawful is honest. Legal aphorism of Paulus in the Digest.

Non omnia possumus omnes

Not everybody can do everything. Phrase of Gaius Lucilius (149-104 B.C.), used by Virgilius in his Eclogues (VIII) to indicate that the capabilities of everybody are not the same.

Non omnis moriar

Not to die, forever. Expressed by Horace in one of his Odes to indicate that his works would survive him.

Non oportet equi inspicere donati

It is not advisable to check the horse given to us. It means it is back talk to look for defects on things bestowed; it would be like knowing the age of the horse being received as gift.

Non oportet studere sed studuisse

It is not important to study, but to have studied. Used to mean that human knowledge cannot be obtained with the application at the moment, but through the prior and regular study.

Non passibus aequis

With his uneven step. End of a poem of Virgilius (Aeneid II).

Non plus

The last degree of perfection. It is said in Madrid.

Non plus ultra

Not beyond. According the legend a place where for the olds the earth ended. Translation of what was written by Hercules on the columns of Abila and Calpe. It is used in Spanish as male noun to ponder things, exaggerating them or raising them to the highest point they can reach.

Non possumus

We cannot. Words addressed by Saint Peter to the prince of Sanhedrin’s clergymen and which were repeated by many Popes in order to deny to many demands of the civil authorities. This was the manner in which Pio IX answered to Napoleon III who pretended the Pontific Status be assigned to Victor Manuel, King of Italy. These words are used to express an absolute denial.

Non quid debetur refert, sed qua mente

It does not matter what is given, but the intention with which it is given. Words of Seneca to express that when a gift is done to us we should consider the intention or good wish of the donor rather than the value of the gifted thing.

Non semper arcum endit Apolo

Apollo has not always his bow extended. Words of Horace to express that we should sometimes rest from the work we are doing.

Non sine causa

Not without reason.

Non sine labore

There is nothing without work. Venture or motto of Cardinal Juan Francisco Pablo de Gondi, Cardinal of Retz (1613-1679)

Non sine te, nec tecum vivere possum. Nec possum tecum vivere sine te

I cannot live with you, neither without you. Phrase used to express a great infatuation. The origin of it is in Ovid (Loves III) and in Marcus Valerius Martialis (40-104) in Epigrams XII.

Non sunt facienda mala ut veniat bona

Evil should not be done to reach the good. Latin proverb by which it is condemned the theory of the ones who say that the purpose justifies the means.

Non videbis annos Petri

You will not see Peter’s years. This was said since Saint Peter governed for 24 years. Therefore it was a habit to warn the Pontiffs on this, however Pio IX governed the Church for 32 years and Len XIII, 25.

Non vivere, sed valere vita, oportet

It does not worth so much living than enjoying life.

Nonne animadvertis?

Can’t you see?

Nos animae viles

We, unimportant creatures.

Nostra memoria

Of our time.

Nostro Marte

With our own force.

Novae bellandi rationes

New methods to do the war.

Novitas pugnae

New manner to fight.

Novum organum

New method to interpret nature. Work of Francis Bacon Published in 1620. The Novum Organum is the second part of the Great Instauratio and it is a complete exhibition of the experimental method.

Noxae deditio

Delivery of the punished. Act by which the paterfamilias in order to free from the liability of a offence committed by somebody under his authority he delivered the person to the one damaged so that he be compensated through the offender’s work. This was the most general cause of the mancipium.

Noxam pecunia

A blame at the cost of gold.

Nudus agris paternis

Deprived of fatherly lands.

Nulla dies sine linea

No day without a line. Proverb that suggests not to abandon the exercise of the art, skill or profession. It derives from what is told by Caius Plinius Secundus Pliny the Elder of Apelles (23- ?), who spend every day drawing at least one line.It also means figuratively that it is a lost day the one spend without doing anything of benefit.

Nulla est causa quin

Nothing prevents that, there is no reason so that no.

Nulla est redemptio

There is no more relief. Used to express that a thing cannot be corrected.

Nulla fuit civitas, quin Caesari pareret

There was no city that did not submitted itself to the Caesar.

Nulla interposita mora

Without delay

Nulla lex satis commoda omnibus est

No law is comfortable enough for everybody. Sentence of Marcus Porcius Cato, called the Ancient and the Censor (234-149 B.C.), used to express that there is no law that even though it may be good it will satisfy wholly all the citizens.

Nulla res una

Not even a thing.

Nulli opera eius defuit

Nobody has ever lack his support.


To nobody. Nature to which the slave abandoned by his owner turned into, since even though he was not considered a person he was not even considered as a pure thing.

Nullo numero

Of no consideration.

Nullo periculo

Without any danger.

Nullum esse, librum tam malum, ut non aliqua parte prodesset

(Said) that there was no book that in any section of it was not able to be useful. Thought cited by Caius Plinius Cecilius Secundus, Plinius the Young (61-114) about his uncle Pliny the Old.

Nullum est jan dictum, quod non dictum est prius

Words of Publius Terentius (190-158) used to express that there is nothing said which was not already said.

Nullum partis delictum innocenti filio paena est

The innocent child should never suffer the punishment for the offence of the father. Roman law rule by which the innocence of the child is shown.

Nullus est qui

There is nobody that.

Nullus videtur dolo facere qui suo jure utitur

The one who enforces his rights cannot be considered as guilty of duress. This sentence of the jurist Gaius teaches that the one who only enforces his right cannot damage anybody not be declared as a consequence responsible for the damage caused to a third party.

Nulum magnum ingenium sine mixturae dementiae fuit

There is no big cleverness without a shade of insanity. Words of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4-65) in De Tranquilitate Animi which suggest that the preponderante of clever thoughts may turn the man abnormal.

Num infitiari potes...?

Can you probable deny...?

Num quis dubitat?

Does anybody doubt?

Numquam aliud natura, aliud sapientia dicit

Nature and pure philosophy do never change.

Numquam est fidelis cum potente societas

Partnership with a powerful is never safe.

Nunc dimitis servum tuum, Domine

Now, God, you bid farewell your servant.

Nunc est bibendum

Time to drink. Popular Ode of Horace starting with Duch words and which was created to celebrate the success of Actium. The principle of it is the imitation of the poetry of Alcaeus (VI century B.C.) against the despot Nursilo.

Nunc ipsum

Completely now.

Nunc surgendum censeo

Now I believe it is convenient to insurgence oneself.


Serious formulation of a vote.

Nuntiare ne

Order that no.

Nusquam esse

To be dead.

Nusquam nisi


Nutrisco et extringuo

Nurture well and destroy bad. Venture or motto of Francis I of France (1494-1547).

O et praesidium et dulce deus meum!

Ah my protection and my dear glory!. Poem of Horace addressed to Maecenas (Ode I) where he shows Maecenas his friendships and gratefulness.

O fortunatos nimium, sua bona norint, agricolae!

How blessed the country men, if they knew their happiness! Poems of Virgilius (Georgics II), from which generally only the first part is cited: O fortunatos nimium.

O imitatores, servum pecus

Ay imitators, stupid animals.

O miseros hominum mentes, o pecora caeca!

Ay men miserable souls! Ah blind hearts!. Poem of Lucrecius in his work De Rerum Natura.

O rem, aliquis, difficilem et inexplicabilem! Atqui explicanda est!

Ah!, difficult and entangled situation, you will say. However, we should leave the entangle. The most ancient work of this type that we know is a comment probably written between 1159 and 1181 based on the principle: Quod nullus sine judicario ordine damnari voleat (Decree of Gracianus, quaestio I, causa II), and which was published by Kuntsmann. It commences in the XIII century with the Ordo judiciarius of Pliny, where he shows the civil procedure which served as a basis for another over the canonic, written by Damaso Bohemio between 1210 and 1216, with a method and exhibition superior to its model, which was kept in the manuscripts of Vienna and Paris, according to which Wunderlich edited his Anecdote. It is important the Ordo created by Tancredo between 1214 and 1216 for the lecturing of the chair, original work with an excellent plan where after an introduction where the outlines of the proceeding are shown there follow four parts which deal with the following: 1) the parties taking part in legal proceedings, 2) the arraignment, 3) the period running from the litis-contestatio till the final decision, and 4) the judgments and their execution, the appeals and the restitutio in integrum.

Ob eam causam

For this reason.

Ob eam rem


Ob hoc, ob id, ob haec

As a consequence of this.

Ob oculos ponere

To make visible.

Ob patriam pugnare

Fight for the country.

Obire diem supremum


Obscura spes

Vague hope.

Obscurus homo

Disguised man.

Obsecrare ne

Beg that no.

Obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit

Indulgence brings about friends, truth creates hate. Words of Terentius in Andria, which are always confirmed by experience.

Obsidibus cavere inter se

Exchange hostages to provide reciprocal guaranty.

Obviam ire alicui

Go to somebody’s encounter.

Occisi aliquod

There were some dead.

Occupationes rei publicae

Occupations to which public business oblige to.

October equus

October horse! Expression that in Rome meant the victim of a formal sacrifice, offered on the Ides of month of Mars, farming divinity.

Oculariarius, ocularius faber

The first of these terms is probably used with reference to the manufacturer of devices to be used by eye doctors.

Oculum pro oculo, et dentem pro dente

Eye for an eye, and tooth for a tooth. Words of the Exodus (22.24).

Oculus habent et non videbunt

Have eyes and will not see. Words of Psalm 113 and 134.

Oderint, dum metuant

Do they hate me, provided they fear me. Phrase of the tragical poet Lucius Accius (170-90 B.C.).

Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore, oderunt peccare mali formidine poena

The good avoid to sin for love to virtue, the bad for fear to punishment. Poems of Ovidius cited to praise the disinterest of virtue, at the same time of justifying the need of the punishment as a brake refraining the bad tendencies of the perverse.

Odi profanum vulgus et arceo

Hate and rejection to the secular populace. Words of Horace (Ode III) by which it is meant that it is better the appreciation and approval of the men of principle and good taste rather than the clapping of the populace. Thomas de Iriarte (1750-1791) in one of his fables shows the same thought with these words: 1) If the wise does not approve, bad; 2) If the foolish clapps, worse. 3) and the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) wrote: Il vulgo a me nemico ed odioso.

Odio (in odio) esse alicui

To be detested by someone.

Odium in aliquem

Hostility against someone.

Offendere scopulum

Encounter a difficulty.

Olim meminisse iuvabit…

Another day it will be a pleasure to remember...

Omito innumerabiles viros

I ignore a crowd of big men.

Omnem crede diem tibi dilexisse supremum

Consider that each day is the last that appears for you. Phrase of Horace (Epistle I) where he appreciates the convenience of frequently remembering the eternity.

Omnes eodem cogimur

We are all obliged to the same. Latin proverb taken from the odes of Horace.

Omnes sicut oves erravimus

We all misguide the same as the sheep.

Omnes una manet nox

Dead is the same for all.

Omnia audiant

That they hear everything; give audience.

Omnia explorata habere

To have complete certainty.

Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque

Time took everything with it. Sentence of Virgilius.

Omnia ista probo, nisi quod verbis aliter utor

I accept what you say, but I express in another way.

Omnia liberius, nullo poscente ferebat

Without being demanded by anybody (the land) produced everything freely. Phrase of Virgilius in the Georgics I in order to explain the generosity of the earth.

Omnia mea mecum porto

I take everything with me.

Omnia Mercurio similis

Everything similar to Mercury. Phrase of Virgilius in the Aeneid used to express the similarity existing between two persons.

Omnia munda mundis

Everything is pure between the pure.

Omnia nam latet vastant, ipsasque volantes

The same flying (bees), are plentifully destroyed. Poem of Virgilus.

Omnia non possumus omnes

Everybody cannot do everything. Phrase of Virgilus to explain the limitation of the human power.

Omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim

I could mention the name of all the punishments. Phrase of Virgilus indicating the amount of punishments that should apply to an obscene or extremely criminal offender.

Omnia serviliter pro dominatione

Everything slavishly for dominance. Words of Publius Cornelius Tacitus (55-120) applicable to the emperor Marcus Salvius Otho (32-69), which can also be applied to others. Therefore many politicians start being slavish and end up enslavering the others.

Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum

That all paths are subject to an even measure (upon being drawn). Poems of Virgilus (Georgics II) which indicates the order in which ploughs should be opened in fields intended for farming.

Omnia sub pedibus

Everything under your feet. Poem of Virgilius (Aeneid) used to express the power or submission to which the defeated by a powerful defeater are subjected to.

Omnia tempus habent

All the things have their time. Thought of Solomon in the Ecclesiastes. In Spanish it is said: every thing has its time, and the turnips upon arrival.

Omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum

Transforms into its most wonderful aspects. Poem of Virgilius (Georgics IV) which refers to the many transformations that Prometheus practiced on his own person before the priest Aristaeus.

Omnia tuta vides, classem sociosque receptus

You see everything on security, you have recovered the ships and partners. Poem of Virgilius in the Aeneid I applied to the one who fully reached his wishes.

Omnia ventorum concurrere praelia vidi

I saw all the winds go to the fight. Poems of Vergilius in the Georgics I, which indicates the rage with which all winds join to the same squall.

Omnia vincit amor

Love defeats everything. Words of Vergilius in the Eclogue X. Cicero in this Treaty on Oratory speaks in a similar way: Sed nihil difficile amanti puto (I believe that for the one who loves, nothing is difficult). It is used to express the permanent power that love tends to have over men.

Omnibus cum contumellis

With all kind of insults.

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus

All singers have this addiction. Phrase of Horace (Satire III) referred to the singers, who upon being asked to sing they refuse to do so and upon nobody asking them to sing they bother us singing more and better.

Omnibus omissis rebus

Leaving everything aside.

Omnis cellula a cellula

Every cell comes from another cell. It shows the biological principle by which every organism, whether it be animal or vegetal owes its origin to another similar. It is the complement to the principle: Omnes vivens ab ovo (Everything comes from the egg).

Omnis civitas helvetica

The helvetic state is a set; right of citizenship.

Omnis definitio in jure periculosa est

Any definition is dangerous in law. It is one of the roman law rules, no doubt due to the great difficulty in defining a thing.

Omnis feret omnia tellus

Any land produces everything. Phrase of Virgilius Bucolicas IV, to mean that men should use their work to farm the land, since the land by itself does not scorn any fruit.

Omnis homo mendax

Every man is a liar. Phrase which in David has a true nature.

Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis

All parental care is on Ascanius. Poem of Virgilius in the Aeneid I which praises parental love.

Omnium consensu

Accord of everybody. Latin words which mean with the agreement of everybody.

Omnium recte facere

To everybody act well.

Omnius omissis rebus

Leaving everything aside.

Oneraria iumenta

Loading beasts.

Oneri esse

To serve as load.

Opem alicui ferre

To give help to somebody.

Opera alicuius uti

Claim the concurrence of somebody.

Operarius mercede sua vivit

The worker lives on his salary.

Opinio est

It is believed that...

Opinior (o) ut opinior…

I believe, if I am not deceiving myself.

Oportet correctione gaudere

It is better to be glad with the correction.

Oportet et haereses esse

It is better there is heresy. Words of the New Testament which indicate that the mistaken principles will bright and the true principles will consolidate.

Oportet semper orare et numquam deficere

It is better to always pray and never weaken.

Oportet studuisse

It is necessary to have studied. It is a sentence of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) which is generally added to the principle: non oportet studere, sed oportet studuisse (it is not necessary to study, but to have studied).

Oportet ut scandala eveniant

It is necessary that scandals take place. It is used to imply that moral evils are shown in different manners, even through scandals.

Oportet ut unus moriatur pro populo

It is necessary that one dies for the people. Sentence expressed by Caiaphas in the process against Christ.

Oppetere poenas superbiae

To find the punishment to his arrogance.

Oppido quam

Complete, extremely.

Oppidum munitissimo loco est

The city is located in a very fortified location.

Opportunitatibus loci defendebant

They defended thanks to the advantages of the position.

Opportuno loco

In a convenient place.

Oppositum per diametrum

Completely opposed. It expresses the absolute opposition.

Opprimi onere

To be overwhelmed by the weight.

Optabile est ut

It is desirable that, it is to be wished that.

Optandum est ut

We should wish that.

Optare ut ne

Wish that no.

Optimum factu est

The best to do is.

Optimus quisque

All the best.

Opus est facto

It is necessary to act.

Opus est:

It is necessary.

Opus sunt

I need many things.

Ora et labora

Pray and work. It is equivalent to the Spanish proverb “pleading to God and hitting with the gavel", which means that we should not ask God to do miracles for the fulfillment of our wishes.

Oraculum dare

Give an answer.

Orans unus et unus maledicens, cujus vocem exaudiet Deus?

One praying and the other cursing, which of the two voices would hear God? It indicates that it is neither fruitful nor convenient that while there are some who pray to God there are others who curse or objurgate him.

Orare atque obsecrare

Plead or beg with persistence.

Orare ne

Plead that no.

Orare pro se

Defend oneself.

Orare ut

Plead that.

Oratio civilis

Political, popular speech.

Oratio eius fiat in peccatum

His prayer be turned into a sin. Anathema of King David in the Psalm 108.

Oratio fidei salvabit infirmum

The prayer of faith saves the ill (New testament).

Oratio humiliantis se nubes penetrabit

The prayer of the one who humiliates, reaches the clowds. Phrase which expresses the efficiency of the prayer together with humility (Ecclesiastical).

Orbem consistere

Make up a circle.

Orbis pictus

Name generally given to the work of John Amus Comenius (1592-1670) entitled Orbis Sensualium Pictus. Hoc est omnium fundamentalium in mundo rerum et invita actionum pictura et nomenclatura, published in Nuremberg in 1658. It is an interesting pedagogical book since it is a very basic essay, though naïve as to the teaching of the natural phenomena through contemplation of the senses.

Orbis terrae

The sphere of the earth.

Ordine egredi

Get out of the line.

Ordines judiciorum (o) ordines judiciarii

Handbooks of actions and proceedings appearing in the Middle Ages which have a great value in order to understand the manner the law was applied in those times, some of them being of a high scientific importance. They should not be compared with the forms or the practical works.They differ from the legal texts because of their greater systematization and relative independence, since they are contrary to the plain commentaries dominating that time.

Ore (in) duorum vel trium testium stet omneversum

In the word of two or three witnesses be kept (the truthfulness) of every word. Legal phrase which expresses the possible truthfulness of two or three witnesses that agree on their testimony. Taken from the Gospel of Saint Matthew 28, 16.

Ore favete (o favete linguis)

Keep silence.

Ore suo benedicebant et corde suo maledicebant

They blessed with their mouths but cursed with their heart (Psalm 61,5).

Ornamentum aureum prudenti doctrina

Science is for the careful man as a golden ornament. Words taken from the book of the Ecclesiastical (21,24).

Os autem impiorum operit iniquitas

Inequity squeezes the mouth (or the word) of the impious. Words taken from the book of the Proverbs.

Os autem quod mentitur, occidit animam

The mouth that lies, kills the soul. Phrase taken from the book of Wisdom.

Os Domini locutum est

The mouth of God has talked. Phrase taken from the book of Isaiah 58.14.

Os eius non confringes

You won’t break the bone. Phrase taken from the book of the Exodus 12.46.

Os habent et non loquentur

They have their mouth and will not talk. Words taken from the Holy Scripture at the departure of the people of Israel from Egypt.

Os homini sublime dedit

The (God ) has given the man a face that looks to the sky. Commencement of a line of Ovidius (Metamorphosis), where the poet in his relation to creation refers to the man, capable of ideally and lofty visions.

Os justi meditabitur sapientiam et lingua ejus loquetur judicium

The mouth of the fair man reasons the wisdom and his mouth talks wisely. Phrase of the Psalm 36.30 where David appreciates the word of the prudent and fair man.The mouth of the just gives birth to the wisdom, but the tongue of the dishonest perishes. Phrase of the book of the Proverbs 10.31.

Os justi parturiet sapientiam, lingua pravorum peribit

The mouth of the just gives birth to the wisdom, but the tongue of the dishonest perishes. Phrase of the book of the Proverbs 10.31.

Os loquentium iniqua

The mouth of the ones who say inequities. Psalm 62.12.

Os magna sanatorum

Mouth of beautiful words. Portion of the poem 43 of the S tira IV of Horace.

Os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam

My mouth will announce your praise. Psalm 50.15.

Os meum aperuit sapientiam

Wisdom opened his mouth. Phrase of the book of the Proverbs 31.26 used to appreciate the sanity and prudence in the words of the righteous woman.

Os meum quasi gladium

My mouth is like a sword. Words of the prophet Isaiah 49.2.

Os prudentis quaeritur in ecclesia

The church needs the eloquence of the prudent man. Words of the Ecclesiastical which mean that in every congregation, assembly or corporation the prudence of the speaker is more required than the science of the same.

Os stulti confusioni est

The mouth (or language) of the foolish, serves to confuse the neighbor. Phrase taken from the Proverbs 10.14 which expresses that the foolishness of some many times serves to feel ashamed.

Os stulti contritio ejus, labia ipsius ruina

The mouth of the foolish is the regret (or confusion) and his own lips are the cause of his ruin. Phrase of the Psalm 18,7 by which the king David tries to explain the effects of language and the self-preservation of the foolish, which is cause of confusion and ruin for himself.

Ossa arida, audite verbum Domini

Resected bones, hear the word of God. Phrase taken from the book of Ezekiel 37.7.

Ossa ejus implebuntur vitiis adolescentiae ejus

His bones will be filled in by the addiction of adolescence. (Job 4.14) it expresses the results that the astral passions of the youth tend to cause on the elderly period of life. Felipe Ricord (1800-1889), Francisco Pfeiffer (1815-1868) and Kneiser, cite this phrase in their works on syphilography talking on it with very painful and realistic inferences.

Ossa vestra quasi herba germinabunt

Your bones will germinate as the grass. Words of the prophet Isaiah 66.14 with which he appreciates the spread and fertility of the generation of the faithful and fearful of God.

Ostendam gentibus nuditatem tuam

Your nudity will manifest to the people. Terrible curse of the prophet Nahum by which the rage of God against the ungrateful manifests by declaring that all the miseries and disgraces of the sinful will manifest publicly to his enemies.

Ostendam vobis quem timeatis

He will show you the one who you should fear. Words of the Gospel St. Luke 12.5 by which Christ manifests which are the type of enemies of our souls which should cause us fear.

Ostendam vobis quid ego faciam vinae meae

He will teach you what I will do with my vineyard. Phrase of prophet Isaiah 5.5 by which God declares the punishment to be applied against the infidelity of its people, figuratively referred to as vineyard.

Ostende nobis, Domine, misericordiam tuam

God, show us your mercy. Taken from the Psalm 84.

Ostende te sacerdoti

Present yourself to the priest. Taken from the evangelist St. Luke 5.14.

Ostium cum dignitate

I rest with honor. It was the ideal of the ancient Romans when they abandoned public life (Cicero, in On the Orator). These words are used with reference to the lips considered as enabling the noble wishes.

Otiosum verbum reddent rationem de eo in die judicii

Of all idle word you will render account on the final day. Phrase taken from the gospel St. Mathew 12.36 used to enhance the prudence and reverence we should keep upon talking.

Otium divos

Gods’ leisure! Part of one of Horace’s verses (Odes II) that is used viciously to mean gods’ peace and beatitude, when its real meaning is that of praising the peaceful and calm life of those who live without ambitions and in their home’s peace, in opposition to those who sail in stormy seas eagerly

Otium in negotio et otium in otio

Leisure in business and business in leisure. Latin phrase usually applied to the distraction work provides within an internal occupation

Otium sine literis mors est et hominis vivi sepultura

Leisure without art is the living man’s death and burial. Words used by Seneca to express that, without art’s reward, living in leisure is like being killed or buried alive.

Pace tua

With your consent.

Paci medium se offert

It is offered as mediator for the peace

Pacta adjecta

Additional agreements. Additional agreements have the characteristic of not being principal or independent conventions, but accessory or secondary agreements to an obligation they are added to or which they amend.

Pacta Conventa

Additional agreements. Additional agreements have the characteristic of not being principal or independent agreements, but additional or secondary agreements to an obligation they are added to or which they amend. According to this obligation, the amendment consisted in aggravating the obligation, increasing it or making it more bearable, reducing it. Thus, these agreements were ad augendam or ad minuendam obligationem (in order to increase or reduce the obligation) and, depending on their addition to the obligation taking place before or at the time it was acquired or after this and separately, it was said they were added in continenti or ex intervallo. At first, no agreements were made, since the legis actiones’ system (legal actions) could not originate an action, as this could only arise from the contract, nor an exception, as at that time, exceptions did not exist. But this disappeared with the introduction of the formulary procedure, because in 670 in Rome, the exceptio pacti was granted, whether they were of one class or the other and whatever the contract they were added to. The subsequent process consisted in allowing them, through case law, to produce effects whenever they were added in continenti, because, in that case, they were part of the contract and fulfillment could be enforced by virtue of the contact itself. At first, such effect was limited to those agreements that were added in continenti to bonafide contracts; but, at Julio Paulo ( ¨ - 235 a.C.) and Ulpian’s time(170-223) this was also permitted for additions to strict performance contracts, what leaves no doubts regarding ad minuendam agreements, and what is true for ad augendam obligationem agreements due to the general terms used by Paulo (at least for those added to oral contracts: quia pacta incontinenti facta stipulationi inesse videntur), with the only exception that the increase involves the establishment of interests or any other similar increase concerning money loans. Main accessory agreements: They can be as numerous as the combinations suggested by the interests of the parties can be. The main ones are: 1) Pacta de Retrovendendo (resale agreement) by means of which the seller reserves the right to recover the property sold, within a certain term and for the same price or another one, which can remain unspecified until this takes place. 2) Pacta de retroemendo, by means of which the purchaser reserves the right to oblige the seller to reacquire the property within a certain term and for a specified or unspecified price. 3) Pacta protimeseos (repurchase agreement) by means of which it is agreed that if the purchaser sells the property he has just bought, the seller will have preference to acquire in the same conditions (preemptive right). 4) Pacta addictio in diem (provisional sale), by means of which the seller reserves the right, until a certain date, to sell the same property to another person that makes a better offer, thus considering the first sale as never preformed. 5) Pacta de non alienando (agreement not to sell), by means of which the purchaser of property binds himself not to transfer the things neither in whole nor in part, or to a certain person. Any transfer performed against the agreed upon terms is not null, but may give rise to an action (actio venditi or praescriptis verbis) for damages and interests against the seller. 6) Pacta reservatae hypotecae (agreement of mortgage reserve), by means of which the seller reserves the right to take a mortgage over the property sold as a guarantee for the payment of the amount that may be owed. It grants priority over any other mortgage that may be given by the purchaser. 7) Pacta reservati dominii (agreement on reservation of title) by means of which the seller reserves title to the property sold until payment of the price. It does not affect the sale’s efficiency, but it places the risks and dangers of the property with the purchaser and making clear that no credit is granted to him; that is, title’s transfer remains pending (transferring, for the moment, the sole possession or precarious possession) interim the price is not satisfied; being this useful to prove that the price was not satisfied until evidence to the contrary is presented. 8) Pacta de non prestada evicciones, by means of which this natural effect of the sale contract is abolished, releasing the seller form any liabilities, within the agreed upon limits, except in case of fraud.The agreements listed until now are the ones added to the sale contract and, except the one indicated under number 2), they are for the benefit the purchaser. The following, are applied to diverse contracts. 9) Agreement allowing for rescission in case of breach of contract by means of which one of the parties is vested with the authority to terminate the contract if the other does not perform his obligations within a certain term. It can be added to all the contracts, except to the pledge; but it is specifically used for sale, establishing it for the benefit of the seller should the purchaser not pay the price within the term agreed upon. It may be stated as a condition precedent or subsequent, being the latter the presumption in case of doubt. The party benefiting from it may opt to request the termination or enforce the performance of the contract. 10) Pacta displicentiae, according to an inadequate technical term used by modern authors (repentance agreement), by means of which both parties or one of them reserve(s) the right to freely break the contract, within a certain term or in perpetuum; but if none of this has been expressed, the sixty-day term will apply, as established under a passage of the Digest. 11) Antichretic agreement, by means of which the debtor grants the use or enjoyment of the property to the creditor instead of paying interests.

Pacta legitima

Legitimate agreements

Pacta non nuda, que producían acción, y que equivalían a verdaderos contratos convencionales, si bien no se les dio el nombre de contratos para distinguirlos de los que anteriormente habían recibido este nombre, conservándose la denominación de pact

Pacta nuda, (esto es, desnudos de acción), que sólo producían excepción.

Pacta pretoria

Pretorial agreements. Those to which the praetor granted a personal action in factum. Some of them were then elevated to contracts by granting them civil actions in jus; but others remained as agreements with personal action in factum. The number of those that must be included in this category is under discussion. Disregarding precarious possession (by means of which free use of property is granted as long as the grantor so wishes) those commonly mentioned by the authors are: 1) Pactum de jure jurando extrajudiciati (oath agreement) by means of which two or more people agree to submit an issue between them to the oath given by one of them. Carlos Gustavo Maynz (1812-1882) does not consider it an agreement, arguing that a simple convention does not produce a legal effect; but Girard, taking into account that once the agreement is accepted and the oath is given, the praetor ratifies its effects (with the purpose of punishing the lack of faith rather than making the agreement binding) not only with an exception, but also with an action, gives it that place. 2) Constitutum, consituta pecunia agreement, which should not be confused with the constitutum possessorium. The importance of the agreement in question requires special attention. It consists in the agreement by means of which a date is fixed in order to fulfill a preexisting obligation (it is the case, thus, of an Agreement ex intervallo) through payment of a sum of money (pecunia, hence its name) and, afterwards, the fulfillment of an obligation of another kind. Valery thinks that the constituta pecunia action (the one that gave rise to this agreement) goes back to the XII Tables (that is, that it would be civil), this agreement appearing in the convention the debtor could execute with the creditor within that 60-day term between the manus injectio and his death or trans Tiberim sale, but this appreciation is, as Girard observes, unacceptable, due to the praetorial character of the action, fully declared in the texts, as there is no record of any civil action becoming praetorial. According to Gerard himself, with whom Maynz agrees, the existence of the constituta pecunia action is proved by Cicero, the second author adding that there are no doubts about its existence during Labeon’s time.

Pacta sunt servanda

Agreements must be observed. Legal rule that teaches that the terms agreed upon by the parties, whether orally or in writing, must be strictly kept and fulfilled.


Pactum vestrum cum inferno non stabit

Your pact with hell, do not remain. Phrase taken from Isahiah, the prophet 28,18 used to express that no illegal convention or conspiracy can last.


From the Greek, country, child and filos, friendship. Person interested in children’s physical and moral welfare.

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas, regumque turres

The pale death knocks in the same way the door of the poor’s hut and the kings’ palaces. Words by Horace used to remind that all humans are equal before death.

Palmam accipere

To get the victory or advantage

Panem angelorum manducavit homo

The man ate the angels’ bread. Taken from Saint John, the Evangelist 6,31

Panem de coelo dedit eis manducare

He gave them the heaven’s bread to eat. Phrase taken from Saint John 6,91.

Panem et circenses

Circus’ bread and games. Taken from Decius Junius Juvenalis X Satires (58-138). These were the masses’ wishes during Ancient Rome’s decadence. It corresponds to the Spanish bread and bull.

Panis egentium vita pauperum est

People in need’s bread is the poor’s life. Phrase taken from the book of Ecclesiastic 34,25, which indicates the poor’s need of his necessary sustenance.

Panis quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mudi salute

The bread I will give you is my own flesh, for the world’s salvation. Taken from Saint John 6,52

Par est

It is convenient.

Par oneri ferendo

Apt to carry the load.

Par sumalicui, alicuius (o) cum aliquo

I am equal to someone

Para evitar esta consecuencia se admitió el llamado derecho de postliminio (jus postliminii), en virtud del cual el ciudadano romano que hubiere sido hecho prisionero del enemigo (en paz o en guerra) y que era puesto en libertad por éste o lograba evadi


From the Greek. pará, to one side and of pherné, dowry. Property taken to the marriage by the woman in addition to the dowry and acquired by her during the marriage by onerous transfer, such as succession or gift.

Parce mihi nihil sunt enim dies mei

Forgive me, as my days are nothing. Phrase taken from the book of Job 7,16, which gave rise to many expressions, all of them reflecting the idea of prescription and insignificance of human things.

Parcere personis dicere de vitiis

To disregard persons and speak about the vices. Phrase taken from Epigrams of Marcus Valerius Marcialis (40-104) which must be interpreted in the sense of hating crime and feeling sympathy for the offender.

Parcere subjectis et debelare superbos

To forgive the defeated and overcome the arrogant. Words of Virgilius in the Aeneida VI that summarise Roman politics, which intended to combine the harshness of the strong’s right with human mercy.

Pares inter se

Equal each other.

Pars illarum erit in stagno ardenti igne

Their part consists in a lake of burning fire. Phrase taken from Revelations 21,8, frequently used by orators and apologists to enhance the intensity of condemned’s torments

Participatum systema

Latin name given to the mild chord system, as each of its sounds is formed by various sounds of the mathematical scale, which participate in the formation of this system, spreading in its diverse degrees.

Participes enim Christi effecti sumus

We have been made, in fact, participants of Christ. Phrase taken from Saint Paul in Hebrew 3,14.

Partim ex nobis timidi sunt

Part of us is timid.

Parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus

Forests will give birth and a ridiculous mouse will be born. Words of Horace in the Art of Poetry while speaking about redundant prefaces commencing works of poor value. The forests’ labor is said to reflect a trivial and ridiculous thing that comes instead of another that was expected to be large and important.

Parum loqui multa facere

Speak little and do a lot. Latin proverb that recommends moderate words and abundance of facts.

Parva magnis

Small things with large things.

Parva pecunia

Small amount of money

Parvo momento antecedere

Pass by a short distance.

Parvuli ejus petierunt panem et non erat qui frangeret eis

Their children asked for bread and there was nobody to cut it. Phrase taken from prophet Jeremy, which reflects the misery reached by people God abandoned, as was the Jewish of their apostatize.

Parvulus enim natus est nobis et filius datus

A child was born for us and we were provided with a son. Words taken from prophet Isahiah 9,16, which orators and apologists use to praise the benefit of the Son of God’s Redemption

Paterna rura bobus exercet suis

He farms his father’s lands with his own dumbs. Horace’s verse that refers to patriarchal habits.

Patiens quia aeternus

He is patient because he is eternal. Words taken from Saint Agustine (354-430) while admiring God’s unchanging patience before Men’s disorders and murders

Patientia autem opus perfectum habet

Patience has its perfect work. Words taken from a letter written by Apostle James 1,4 which apologists use to praise the usefulness and need of patience.

Patientia lenietur princeps et lingua mollis confinget duritiam

The sovereign is placated with patience, and the smooth tongue destroys harshness. Phrase from the book of Proverbs 25,15, famous for its application by Saint Gregory while turning to the emperor with dignity and sweetness.

Patientiam habe in me et omnia reddam tibi

Be patient and rely on me, and I will return you everything. Words of Saint Mathew18,26, which Bossuet, Massillon, Flechier, Segur and Dupanloup have used repeteadly these days to increase confidence in divine promises.

Patrius sermo

Mother tongue.

Patrum nostrorum memoria

At our ancestor’s time.

Paucis ante diebus

A few days ago.

Paucis diebus post

A few days later.

Paucorum annorum

Of a few years.

Paulo ante mediam noctem

Shortly before midnight.

Paulum minus

A little less.

Pauper ubique jacet

The poor is depressed everywhere. Words of Ovid, whose signification is perfectly clear.

Pauperes evangelizantur

The poor are evangelized. Words of Christ, cited by the Evangelists, which indicate as one of the prodigies of the new era of grace the fact that the poor could be transmitted the truths of the Gospel. Catholic writers and apologists cite this expression to reflect that the more prejudiced classes of society have the right to be taught Jesuschrist’s faith doctrines and that denying them this knowledge goes against law and reason.

Paupertas impulit audax

Poverty that dares to do everything has driven me. Words of Horace, which he used to express the cause that led him to write verses (ut versus facerem), and which is usually cited to indicate that need is the most powerful sting good men have to motivate and reach difficult goals.

Peccata eorum non memorabor amplius

I will never remember his sins. Words by prophet Jeremy 31,34, usually used in holy oratory and apologetics to praise God’s infinite compassion towards the sinner.

Peccata mea

For my sins, my faults or to punish them.

Peccata minuta

Error, offense or minor vice. This expression is commonly used with a familiar sense to designate a minor fault, mistake or error. Even when Latin words are in the plural, they are applied to a fact in the singular, thus, it is said: “What I have done with this man is peccata minuta in comparison with what others have done.”

Peccata tua elemosynis redime

Redeem your sins by paying alms. Phrase of Daniel 4,24 by means of which the Church praises the efficiency of alms to reach the forgiveness of sins.

Peccato peccavit Jerusalem, propterea instabilis facta est

Jerusalem committed a (serious) sin and, for that reason, it became changeable. Phrase from prophet Jeremy’s Trenos 1,8, by means of which sinner’s changeability and fickleness are shown as direct effects of sin.

Peccator centum annorum maledictus erit

The sinner will be damned for one hundred years. Phrase of prophet Isahiah 65,20 used to show the fact that when the old man sins he is much more guilty than the young one, for his life experience should prevent him from any spiritual ruin. Jacobo Benigno Bossuet (1627-1704) showed one of his more noble gestures of eloquence when applying this text to one of his sermons given before Louis XIV.

Peccatum et blasphemia remittetur, spiritus blasphemiae non remittetur

Sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven; the spirit of blasphemy shall not. Phrase taken form the Gospel according to Saint Mathew 12,31, by means of which the deeply-rooted spirit or habit of blaspheming is expressly condemned. Saint Basil (329-379) wrote a beautiful homily about this text.

Pecuniae obediunt omnia

Everything obeys to money. Phrase taken from the book of Ecclesiastic 10,13 used as a praise to reflect the material efficiency of money in social relations.

Pecuniam alicui

To lend money to someone.

Pecuniam de aerario

The money from the public treasure.

Pecuniam ex aerario

Money from the public treasure.

Pecuniam tuam non dabis ad usuram

You will not give money for usurious gain. Phrase taken from the Levitic 25,37 that moralists and orthodox economists usually use to condemn usurious loans, based on the authority of the Holy Scriptures.

Pecus (genitivo: pecoris)

Livestock, crowd.

Pecus (genitivo: pecudis)

Head of cattle, stupid, fool.

Pellem pro pelle, cuncta pro anima

Skin for skin, everything for the soul. Phrase from the scriptures, Job 2,4 usually used to increase the equity that must be informed to commutative justice. It is mostly substituted by the phrase: eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth.

Pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore

Pending from the narrator’s words. Phrase taken from the Aeneid by Vigilius, used to express Dido’s anxiety when listening to Aeneas’ story about Troy’s siege and fall.

Penes te est?

Are you the owner of yourself?

Pensi non habere

Not to pay attention to something.

Per aversam portam

Through the opposite door.

Per causam

On the pretext of.

Per causam exercendorum remigum

On the pretext of training the rowers.

Per deos

For the gods.

Per me reges regnant, et legum conditores justa decernunt

Kings reign because of me and legislators decree what is fair. Words adjudicated to Divine Wisdom by Salomon in his Proverbs.

Per que peccat quis per haec et torquetur

You are tormented in the same way you sin. Maxim taken from the Book of Wisdom, which warns that any fault or sin carries in itself a torment or penance.

Per transit benefaciendo

He did good. Expression applied to Jesuschrist and which comes from Saint Peter’s words to Cornelius the centurion, referring to our Redeemer

Percusserit (qui) patrem aut matrem, morte moriatur

Those who hit their father or mother, die (badly). Phrase taken from the Exodus 21,15 used to condemn outrage on parents.

Percussit aquas et divisae sunt

He hit the waters and they got divided. Biblical phrase taken from the IV book of the Kings 2,14 used to describe God’s miracle when ordering Moses to hit the waters of the Red Sea with his stick in order that this could create a dry way and the Israelites could cross it safe and sound.

Percutiam pastorem et dispergentur oves

The shepherd will be hurt and the bees will disperse. Phrase taken from Zachary 13,17 which refers to Christ’s imprisonment in the garden of Gethsemane and the subsequent dispersion of his disciples.

Percutiat te Deus egestate, febri et frigore

God hurt you with necessity, fever and cold. Words of Deuteronomy 28,22 used to appreciate the punishments applied by God to afflict apostate people.

Pereant, ut Sisara, omnes inimici tui

Perish all your enemies like Sisara. Phrase taken the book of Judges 5,10, usually applied to the destruction of the enemies who are, at the same time, unfair aggressors.

Pereat dies in qua natus sum, et nox in qua dictum est: nascatur homo

Perish the day I was born and the night it was said: the man must be born. Words from the book of Job 3,3, which reveal the most bitter pessimism and that must not be taken literally, as commentators and interpreters of the Holy Scriptures explain and clarify sufficiently the sense in which they must be taken.

Perfecta caritas foras mittit timorem

Perfect charity eliminates fear. Phrase take from Saint John Evangelist 1,4, used to increase the value of charity, which, in itself, is enough to avoid any fear or distrust.

Periculosum semper putavi lucrum

I have always thought wealth was dangerous.

Periculum mora

Danger is in the delay.

Permanebimus in peccato ut gratia abondet?

We will remain in sin in order that grace abounds. This is a question taken from a Saint Paul’s letter to the Romans 6,2 the Protestants made famous by removing the question mark, what disfigures in whole the apostle’s intention of indicating that remaining in sin and request grace at the same time, involves temerity or vain presumption

Permittere me mortuum sepelire patrem

Let me bury mi dead father. Phrase taken from the Gospel according to Saint Mathew 8,11, often used by religious orders’ advocates and apologists to appreciate the way Christ requires promptness and speed in performance to those who have vocation to follow gospel’s advices, that is not compatible neither with the important duty, nor with the brevity of the action required to bury one’s own father’s body.

Pero el soberano, legítimo desde su instauración en la sociedad política que gobierna, o purificado por la prescripción o el ascenso de los súbditos, puede no manifestarse en todo momento dentro del marco de la virtud o traspasar límites que el dere

Perpetuas vías

Ways without interruption.

Pes tuus te scandalizat, amputa illum

Should your foot scandalize you, then cut it. Phrase taken from Saint Mark the Evangelist 9,44, used by Catholic orators and apologists to praise the convenience of sacrificing any element, even a part of our body, in order to ensure eternal salvation.

Pestilentes dissipant civitatem; sapientes, vero avertunt furorem

Plague victims destroy the city, but the wise put fury away. Phrase taken from the book of Proverbs 29,8, which equals to the antithesis between the fool and the wise, highlighting the destructive influence of the first and the healthy and efficient influence of the second one in city life and social action.

Petrus in cunctis

Peter in everything. Used to give a name to somebody who pretends to know a lot of things at the same time but does not have solid knowledge of any of them.

Philosophia nos artem bene vivendi docet

Philosophy teaches us the art of welfare.

Phocion fuit pauper, cum ditissimus esse posset

Focion was poor, even when he could have been rich.

Pietas erga parentes

Children’s love towards their parents.

Pietas, autem, ad omnia utilis est

Mercy is useful for everything. Phrase taken from the first letter of Saint Paul to Timothy 4,8, usually used by apologists and orators to praise the need and usefulness of merciful acts.


Tyre’s King in Phoenicia, famous for his unhappy romance with the Trojan’s prince Aeneas.


From the Greek pyr, fire and hexis, state. Essential fever or that is not a symptom of a local disease.

Plaudebant in re ficta

They clapped at a fictitious fact.

Plenus venter non studet libenter

A full stomach does not study willingly. Said to mean that after a plentiful food, you feel laziness and you have no will to study or work seriously. The origin of this Latin expression comes from the Flos Medicinae sive Ars Sanitatis of the School of Salerno, in the verse stating: Inanis venter non audit verba Libenter (an empty stomach does not hear words gladly).

Pluris, minoris

In more or less.

Poculis labra

The lips of a cup.

Poenas dare alicui

To suffer a punishment that causes pleasure to someone.

Poenas ob delictum expetunt

They require punishment for the crime.

Poma agrestia

Fruits of the fields.

Pompam funeris ire

To go to the funeral.


Pontiff. Priest-magistrate who presided over the religious rites and ceremonies of Ancient Rome. The school of pontiffs founded by Numa Pompilio (714-671 b.C.) and composed, at first, by four members, all of them patricians; then increased to fifteen. According to Titus Livio (59 b.C.-17 a.C.) the king was always the maximum priest and carried out most of the priestly duties. For Christians, he is the supreme prelate of the Catholic Church.

Populum in tribus tres

To the town in three flocks.

Por otra parte, el texto de Tito Livio (59 a.C.-17 d.C.) sólo prueba que se había concedido el derecho de provocación a los plebeyos, derecho que primitivamente no tuvieron, y aun la opinión de Sexto Pompeyo Festo (para quien el dictador no estaba som

Posterum diem

A last day.


Potestas (non est enim) nisi a Deo

Every power derives from God. Phrase taken from Saint Paul to the Romans 13,1 ethical writers usually use to prove the origin of power in general terms

Potius aliquid malle quam

To prefer something (a certain thing) instead of something else.

Praeda ingenti compos exercitus

Army that has taken a large booty.


The booty


Publication, proclamation.

Praefecti jure dicundo

Prefects nominated by law. Those who were designated by the praetor as his representatives to administer justice in certain Italian cities, which, for this reason, were designated prefectures.

Praefecti jure dicundo decurionum decreto ex lege petronia

Prefects to administer justice named by decree by Petronian law. They were two (duoviri) and they were named by the municipal Senate, by virtue of the Lex Petronia municipalis, when for any reason the supreme Municipal magistrates had not been elected (II viri or IV viri jure dicundo) on time to assume their positions on January 1, in order to carry out the municipal administration until this took place


Prefect. Among Romans, title of many military and civil authorities.

Praefectus municipii

Municipal prefect. In the same way as when both Roman consuls abandoned the city they had to name a praefectus urbi, in the municipalities (organised by the Roman model), when the II viri or IV viri were absent, the last one to leave had to name a prefect or a substitute, who would govern until one of them returned. This prefect had to be chosen out of the decurions who were of a certain age (35 pursuant to the Lex Salpensa).

Praefectus urbi (o) urbis

City prefect; called Custos urbi at the beginning. At monarchy’s time it was an auxiliary of the king in the administrative body with powers assigned by the monarch. At the Republic’s time, it retained its capacity as vicar of the supreme authority during the latter’s absence in the city. The praefectus urbi retains his capacity and even increased its importance since Constantine’s time. There was one in Rome and another one in Constantinople.


Pretrial. In a broad sense, all pretrial matters, both civil and criminal, that intend to and must be solved before the trial, about any issue. In this sense, civil exceptions and accessory articles on the criminal area are genuine pretrial matters. But in a proper and strict sense, pretrial matters constitute the essence of criminal procedure, and they are the civil or administrative matters which sometimes arise during the procedure and that must be solved separately or by a different authority from the one that handles the main matter and always before it, because they defend more or less discreetly from these matters the legal classification of the justifiable fact

Praelatus nullius

Prelade that has jurisdiction over a territory which does not belong to any diocese.

Praemissis praemittendis

All requirements having been fulfilled. In substance, this is the meaning.

Praemonitus, praemunitus

Cautious man. Our phrase refers to this term: The informed derive from the well informed, having a signification similar to the Latin phrase.

Praescriptis verbis

Praesente cadavere

Bodily present

Praestat invidos habere quam misericordiam

It is better to cause envy rather than mercy. It is generally said, it is better envy than mercy.

Praetoria potestas

Praetorial power.


Preceptiva literaria

This is the name used to designate the collection of rules and precepts that form what, in a very broad sense, may be designated as literary canon.


The pleadings.

Pridem dudum

A lot of time.

Prima face

The first light.

Primum est esse quam operari

First be and then act. A better way to express this is: Prius est esse quam operari.

Primum frigidum

Pure or absolute cold. Elementary substance according to Parmenide’s(540-450 b.C.) doctrine.

Primum movile

The first motive. In ancient astronomical systems it was called primum movile, the first mobile heaven, the heaven (solid or fluid circle, place of heavenly bodies), immediate to the celestial (still), which in its movement from the East to the West carried all the inferior heavens, thus being the cause of the day movement of heavenly bodies.

Primum oratoris officium…

The first duty of the orator...

Primum vivere, deinde philosophari

First live, then philosophize. The real author of this maxim is unknown. Some attribute it to Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), however, it is older. It is used ironically to refer to those who are not good at earning a living and, are, instead, keen on discussing. It is also referred to as: primo vivere, deinde philosophari.

Primus in orbe deos fecit timor, arduus coelo

Primus inter pares

The first among his fellow men or peers.

Principiis obsta sero medicina paratur

Ovid’s poem in his Remedia Amoris applied both in a proper and figurative sense to express that soul’s passions, as well as diseases, must be defeated from the beginning to avoid their worsening in a way that any medicine results unable to handle or cure it.


Principle. Writers do not agree concerning legal general principles: for some of them they arise from Natural Law; while for others they derive from legal science’s propositions. Gen considers as such, the universal rules reason speculates, generalizing by means of the abstraction of particular solutions obtained from social justice and equity and considering the nature of positive things, rules that will constitute some kind of Universal Law, general because of its nature and subsidiary because of its function, which replace the gaps in formal sources of law. Lambert is not far from this concept, who intends to induce, through comparative law, the ordinary rules of different groups of people. Among Spanish authors, Saches Roman considers legal axioms or maxims compiled in ancient compilations (Digest, Decretales, Partidas, etc.), as general principles of law and Buron states they are reason dictates admitted by the legislator as an immediate basis for his regulations and which contain his capital thinking.



Prior in tempore

First in time.

Priore aestate

During the preceding summer.

Prius (genitive: prioris)


Prius in orbe deos fecit timor

Pro comperto habeo

For sure.

Pro eo ut, pro eo ac

As long as.

Pro explorato habere

Being certain that.

Pro nihilo

In nothing.

Pro patria mori

To die in defense of the country.

Pro se quisque

Each one separately.

Proam ad

Place the bow to.


To indict, indictment: order by virtue of which the examining judge orders the indictment of a person. It may be with imprisonment or provisional release, and may or may not involve solitary confinement. Indictments must be requested.


Procedure. Way of proceeding in justice. This word derives from the Latin verb procedo, which, at the same time, is comprised of two words: pro, which means in front of, and cedo, which means “to march.” Group of acts which result essential to investigate about the commission of a wrongful act and determine the participation and responsibility of the people that may have participated in it. The procedure includes the whole set of acts performed by the examining judge (summary) as well as those ordered by the higher Cout (docket) during the plenary period, and also being able to be included those ones created by the filing of appeals the law grants against judgments. The process as a whole reflects the action of marching forward. Law is granted for life; in which men reach their goals by applying the means granted to them. In this sense, it can be stated that they are legal proceedings used to pass laws, ensure their enforcement, apply them at trial and even for the purposes of peaceful compliance with the Law, such as the execution of an agreement or execution of a will.

Procul negotiis

Far from business. These words by Horace are usually cited to express, as this poet did, that distance with business is a requirement in order to have a happy life. They belong to Ode II of the book of Epodon.

Prolem sine matre creatam

Offspring with no mother created. End of one of Ovid’s verses (Metamorphoses II). It is applied to families with no ancestors, to works created without any model and to men with no grandparents.


Enactment. Formal publication of a law in order to make it public.

Pronus ad iram

Prone to rage.

Propter iniurias

About injustices.

Propter necessitatem illicitum efficitur licitum

In case of need what is unlawful becomes lawful. Rule of canonic law that is contained and explained in the Decretals.

Propter nuptias

Gifts. Those made by parents or legal representatives to their descendents or wards, or by the contracting parties to each other, before execution and because of marriage.

Propter usum fructum

With usufructuary right.

Provocatio ad populum

Prudentium est mutare consilium

Wise people change their advice.

Prudentium responsa

Wise people’s answer. Those given by Roman legal advisers to those clients who consulted them about a legal matter.


State owned property.

Puer bene sibi fidens

Conceited child.

Puer pulsus

The battered child.

Pulchre, bene recte

Good, very good, perfectly.

Pulsate et aperietur vobis

Call and they will open. Words said by Christ applicable in various ways, or to mean that we must do something from our position if we want to get what we request to God, or what we generally wish.

Pulvis et umbra sumus

We are dust and shadow. Verse by Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b. C) in the Diffugere nives Ode which indicates how fragile and perishable human nature is.


Punishment to criminal acts. Public power’s authority to punish unlawful acts and offenses imposing the corresponding punishment upon the offenders.

Qua de causa


Qua ex causa

For this reason

Quae (acerba) manent victos

What cruel treatments are expected to defeated!

Quae comperta habemus

Things we are certain about

Quae plus damni quam utilitatis afferunt, inter bona non adnumerantur

It states that those things that cause more damage than benefits should not be taken as goods.

Quae sunt eadem uni tertio sunt idem inter se

Those equal to a third one, are each other equal. Identity principle.

Quaerens quem devoret

Looking for someone to devour. Phrase used by Peter I in his first letter used to describe the devil.

Quaerite et invenietis

Search and you will find. Words from the book of Saint Mathew which have a similar meaning to Pulsate et aperietur vobis (knock the door and it will be opened); used to teach that we must do something in order to get what we want, even in a spiritual sense, because, as Saint Agustine states: Qui fecit te sine te, non justificavit te sine te (The one who created you without your help will not save you without your cooperation).

Quaeritur primum regnum Dei et justitiam ejus, et haec omnia adjicientur

First look for the reign of God and its justice and the rest will be given in addition. Words from the book of Saint Mathew.

Quaesitum est ex Caesare

He was asked about the Caesar.

Quaestiones perpetuae

Qualis ab incepto

By Quintus Horactius Flaccus (65-8 a.C.) in his Art of Poetry. The phrase is: Servetur ad imum, qualis ab incepto processerit, et sibi constet: The personality shown by a stage character from the beginning must be kept until the end, and the same must always be maintained.

Qualis artifex pereo!

I die as an artist! What a great artist the world is losing! Exclamation made by Nero before dying, according to Gaius Suetonius Tranquilus (70-141). It is known that Nero appeared in public many times, at the theatre, as well as in the circus, contesting the prizes of singers and cart drivers in the races carried out at the circus.

Qualis pater, talis filius

Like father, like son. Statement that is not as exact in practice. It is the way of regulating the Latin adage that some, based on Carlos Francisco Lhomond (1727-1794), write talis pater, talis filius, contrary to the Latin language genious. This statement which is not always accurate, means that offspring usually carry the same defects or qualities as their parents.

Qualis vir talis oratio

He speaks like what he is. Sometimes equal to the saying: The ox spoke and said moo

Qualis vita finis ita

If you live like that, you're bound to come to a bad end

Quam dudum?

How long has it been?

Quam maxime

As much as possible.

Quam ob rem


Quandoque bonus dormitat Homerus

Sometimes good Homer dozes. Extract from verse 359 of the Letter to the Pisos, by Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C), in which the critic wanted to express that even the most brilliant people can make a mistake, as they do not always keep the same level. Thus, he indicates that there is no perfect human work. This phrase is analogous to the common saying. “A horse stumbles that has four legs.”

Quantum animis erroris inest!

What a number of errors is attached to the souls!

Qui capita rerum sunt

Those who are in charge of the matters; main quantity of a sum or group; person’s status, civil personality

Qui imperet


Quibus pro tantis rebus

In exchange of such important things

Quibusdam talibus argumentis

By means of the following reasons.

Quid ad me venitis? An speculandi causa?

Why do you come to me? Isn’t it to spy me?

Quid ais?

What are you saying?

Quid causae est quin?, quae causa et quin?

Which is the inconvenience? Why not?

Quid fuit causae cur non…

Which was the reason for not...

Quid habes dicere?

What do you have to say?

Quid minus est dignum quam...?

What other thing is less decent than…?

Quid obstat quominus...?

What is against what...?

Quidlibet audendi potestas

Right to dare anything. Words taken from a verse by Quintus Horactius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.) in the Poetics which states that “painters and poets have always had, with equity, the right to dare anything.”

Quidquid audet Graecia mendax

Everything the liar Greece dares. Extract, with a change in the order of words, from two verses by Juvenal: Et quidquis Graecia mendax-audet in historia... The Latin poet accuses the Greek of falsifying history. Citing this verse, we think about the Greeks’ imagination, which, sometimes, bordered on lie.

Quidquid corrigere est nefas

What is impossible to be mended. Verse by Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.) in Odes I by means of which he expresses that patience is a great relief in hard and adverse situations that cannot be avoided. This idea is completed with the previous verse: Levius fit patientia (patience will become slighter).

Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur archivi

The Greek pay for their kings’ madness. Comment made to Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.) in one of his letters, Achilles’ rage and Agamenon’s violence when remembering the main passages of the Illiad when expressing the reasons for their admiration for Homer to his friend, Lolio. In a free translation of the work of this Latin poet, Augusto Enrique Julio Lafontaine (1758-1831), has perfectly interpreted his thought: “It seems that the humble have always suffered the impertinences of the powerful.” It is also equivalent to our proverb “There go laws do want kings”

Quidquid enuntiatur, aut verum est, aut falsum

Everything that is said is either true or false.

Quidquid futurum est summum, ab imo nascitur

What should be elevated to the higher grade has very humble origins. Sentence by Publius Sirius (mytic and moralist poet of century I b.C.), used to reflect that humility usually is the basis for future greatness.

Quidquid praeceptis, esto brevis

Try to express your precepts in few words.

Quidquid recipitur ad modum recipentis recipitur

What is received is so according to the recipients character. Philosophical aphorism used to express the proportion existing between everything done by a being in a specific order and the being itself; mainly between what is received regarding the way and the subject who receives it. It is not possible to determine this proportion a priori if the nature of the power or subject is not known beforehand and it is of various classes, according to the matter concerned, even though, usually, it can be said that it is entitative. This principle deriving from the teleological causal conception that constitutes the leitmotiv of the scholastic Aristotelian philosophy, can even perfectly serve positive science research if it is applied carefully. As a consequence, we find the limitation on the formal effect because of the subject’s unwillingness, a phenomenon that is usually designated with the same formula; it is also applicable to the determination of the objects of our capacities.

Quidquid tentabant dicere, versus erat

Everything I tried to say, came up in verse. Famous pentameter by Ovid in the Tristes IV. The poet remembered briefly the story of his life; he tells that since his tender infancy he developed the muses. His father tried vainly to put him apart from a futile career, Ovid, himself, vainly tried to write in prose, but everything he said came up naturally in meter

Quis Deus hanc, musae, quis nobis extudit artem?

Oh muses! Which God has communicated us this art? Verse by Virgil in the Georgics IV, in which the poet shows himself amazed at the capacity the production of the bees implies. It is always applied to indicate an exceptional ability, expressed in a prodigious and extraordinary way, but always hidden or mysterious.

Quis dubitat?

Does anybody doubt?

Quis est hic et laudabimus eum?

Who’s this and we’ll praise him? Phrase taken from the book of Wisdom.

Quis fallere potest Amantem?

Who can be unfaithful to a lover? Hemistich from the Aeneid by Virgil, usually used to show the difficulty in being unfaithful to someone one truly loves and, mainly, in matters related to love.

Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentis?

Who will put up with the Gracci complaining about sedition? Words used by Juvenal at the beginning of the second Satire, to bitterly complain about the hypocrisy of some of the community’s censors and tribunes, more corrupted that those they censored.

Quis ut Deus?

Meaning of the Hebraic name of Saint Michael, the archangel. This phrase reflects that no power can prevail over God, who always has the last word.

Quo multitudo agebatur

Where the crowd rushed.

Quo non ascendam?

Where I will not climb? Words attributed as a motto to the famous Treasury superintendant of Louis XIV, Nicholas Fouquet (1615-1680), whose excessive ambition led to his imprisonment and he died in prison.

Quo tempore

Since the time in which

Quo vadis?

Where do you go? Title of the famous novel translated to almost all the languages written by the novelist Enrique Sienkiewics (1846-1916). It was played in a theater by Enrique Cain (1859-1937), with the music of Juan Nougues (1876-1932), and appeared for the first time in Paris in 1909. The expression is: Domine, quo vadis?

Quo ventus ferebat

In the direction the wind blew.

Quo, quo scelesti reuitis?

Where, where are you rushing, oh criminals? Phrase by Quintus Horatius Flaccus(65-8 b.C.) in the Lire VII, used to anathemise the political rebellion that damages the nation itself

Quoad se, quoad nos

Quod ab omnibus, quod ubique, quod semper

What everybody omits, wherever and forever. Argumentation formula taken from the unanimous consent of all the communities, and that is mainly used to prove the existence of God.

Quod abundat non nocet

That which abounds doesn't hurt. Legal principle commonly used in that sense.

Quod Deus conjunxit, homo non separet

What God has united, man must not divide. Words by Christ when establishing the indissolubility of marriage (Mathew 19,6, Mark 10,9)

Quod di omen avertant!

The gods put those omens away from us! Formula that was usually used to express the desire that Gods or destiny saved one or more persons from any misfortune that was foreboded. It is also said: Di, talem avertile casum!

Quod erat demonstrandum

Which was to be demonstrated. Formula usually used by math teachers after a demonstration and is sometimes reproduced by books with the acronym Q.E.D.

Quod facis, fac eitius

What you are going to do, do it quickly. Words by Christ directed to Judas Iscariot during the last Supper (John, 13,27).

Quod jussu

Applied in Roman law to the action granted to third parties for obligations acquired in their favor by an alieni juris person with the order (jussus) and, therefore, with the father or owner’s responsibility.

Quod metus causa

Action and exception quod metus causa. Ways of procedure that, in praetorial law were used to remedy the effects of violence committed by a contracting party, when fear (metus) resulting from that violence had been such that had led the other party to execute the contract. The praetor, considering that what had been done under the influence of that fear had no legal effects, granted the victim of that coercion the right to file an exception that stopped the effects of the action intended to perform the obligation as well as an action to repair the damage caused. This action was arbitrary and granted fourfold. These praetorian ways were not applied to bonafide actions, in such cases, the Civil Code provided the means to obtain a remedy.

Quod natura non dat, Salamantica non praestat

What nature doe not give us, is not offered by Salamanca. This modern saying (As it refers to the well-known University of Salamanca) means that study is no good without natural talent. We can oppose to this saying another famous one by Georges-Louis Leclerc, count of Buffon (1707-1788): “Work is the genius,” which results as exaggerated as the other one. From both we can conclude that talent is no good without study and is not fruitful without a natural ability to develop and grow a powerful help.

Quod nimis probat

Quod principii placuit, legis habet vigorem

What the prince likes becomes law. Aphorism by Ulpian (170-228) in the Digest which represents the legal success of the imperial despotism.

Quod ratio non quid, saepe sanavit mora

What cannot be obtained by reason, can often be generally reached with time. Phrase by Lucius Annaeus Seneca (? - 65 a.C.) in Agamenon, which is usually used to indicate that in hard and difficult businesses, greater success is reached with persistence rather than with a brilliant impulse.

Quod scripsi, scripsi

What I have written is written. Words by Pilato contained in the Gospel and that is applied to those who do not want to withdraw what they have already stated, even when they are begged to do it.

Quod tibi non vis alteri non facias

Don’t do to others what you do not want for you.

Quodcumque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi

Everything you express in this way is unbelievable for me and shocks me. Words used by Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.) in his Art of Poetry to express how difficult it is for dramatic actors to perform horrible scenes or scenes that go against human feelings before the public

Quomodo vales?

How are you? Familiar salutation used to know about a friend’s health. More commonly used: ut vales?


Quorum. This word was admitted by political practice and, in the law of this name, to indicate the number of members necessary in order that a Meeting can act volitionally.

Quos ego

They I will. Reluctance or incomplete phrase that Virgil puts in Neptune’s mouth, angry at the winds that triggered over the sea and that is usually applied to express a threat.

Quos peto da, Cai; non peto consilium

Give me, Gaius, what I am asking you, not a piece of advice. Phrase from the Epigrams II by Marcus Valerius Marcial (40-104) that has given rise to many proverbs. In Spanish: Give me money and not advice.

Quos vult perdere Jupiter, dementat prius

God first takes the brains of those he wants to lose. Sentence wrongly attributed to Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.), and which is a translation from the Greek from a sentence by Euripides, usually applied to those who run blindly to their ruin. The word prius (before) is frequently omitted.

Quot capita, tot sensus

So many heads, so many points of view. It is used to note the deep dissent existent among the members of a board, assembly, or society.

Quot homines, tot sententiae

So many men, so many sentences. Phrase from Formion II by Publius Terentius (185-159 b.C.).

Quousque tandem?

Quousque tandem?: Since when. First words of Cicero’s sentence against Lucius Sergius Catilina (108-63), used to brand familiarly those who abuse of our patience, as that conspirator abused, according to Cicero, of the Romans’ patience. The complete phrase, in Latin, sometimes in a high style, often in a familiar one is: Quousque tandem, Catilina, abutere patientia nostra? Tiil when will you Catalina abuse of our patience.


Abduction. Crime consisting in taking a woman by force or through efficient prayers, or in the case of being a minor of twelve years old.


Ratihabition. It is the declaration of the will of someone with respect to an act another made on his behalf , approving it and confirming its validity. According to this, the ratihabition differs from the ratification only in that the second has a more external meaning including the ratification as the genre includes the specie, since the ratification is the confirmation of we have done before and of what another has done on our behalf without there being a prior agency, while the ratihabition has retroactive legal effects to the day in which the contract or the legal act was performed, Ratihabitatio retratrahitur ad initium (the ratihabition causes the revert to the beginning), provided that from its origin the act or contract has not been legally null, since it is already known the legal rule by which what is null from the beginning is always null.


However, this nullity should be substantial or absolute, if not, if there was only an external defect giving rise to the contract recession by restitution of the thing, by virtue of the ratihabition law the contract or legal act would be valid, therefore having all the force it would be capable to have.The ratihabition is equivalent to the agency; ratihabitatio mandato equiparatur, so when someone ratifies what another did on our behalf this is equivalent to having ordered to be done on his behalf said act or contract.

Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur

Ratihabition is equivalent to the agency. This rule implies that the approval of what another did on our behalf is worth the same as if we had ordered it to be done.


Account, calculation. Originally it referred to the private or public accounts, but as an extension, during the Empire, it referred to a financial administration, a service with the corresponding staff and their offices. The res privata (private matter) had as an appurtenance the service of the property of the empress, the ratio Augustae, and the ratio operarum publicarum.

Ratio dicendi

Oratory skill.

Ratio studiorum

Curricula. Latin expression referred to the plan or method of study which the usage applied to curricula of the schools of the Company of Jesus, or also to the book where said plan is included.

Rationabile obsequium

Reasonable gift. Words of Saint Paul to refer to the fact that the submission of the believer to the divine authority is based on rational reasons.


Officers. Officers in charge of administering in Rome the aerarium sacrum or sacrae largitiones, and the private exchequer of the emperor. The word rationales derives "ratio" many times replacing the word solicitor. For the revenue authorities the a rationibus is called rationalis since the times of the flavius, the two terms existing together till the age of Diocletianus, but with some alterations, till between the years 340 and 345 the title rationalis was replaced by comes sacrarum largitionum. For the res privata the title of magister privatae rei (master of the private thing) was replaced by the rationalis privatae after 325, turning into comes rei privatae (associate of the private thing) upon the year 340.

Ratione materiae

As to the subject matter.

Rationibus subductis

After the accounts being casted.

Re cum re

One thing with another.

Rebus augustis animosus, atque fortis appare

On difficult times, behave with character and strength. It is a sappic and a half of the II Ode of Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) by which he appeals to the greatness of character on difficult times. Frequently cited by speakers in order to stimulate the courage of the ones who doubt or want to leave their venture.

Rebus in arctis

On difficult things. It is used when the intention is to praise the glorious and worthy nature of undertaking difficult or hard things. Also referred to as: Rebus in arduis.

Rebus servate secundis

Keep yourselves for more successful things. Hemistich of the Aeneid I of Virgilius after wrecking with his partners in the coasts of Italy. He admonished them to sep their efforts and hope to restore the kingdom of Troy in the new country where the misfortune has taken them. The pronoun is added in encyclic under the poem, vos met, ante rebus, to express with more intensity the yourselves

Rebus sic stantibus

Things being like this. It has causality force.

Recedant vetera, nova sint omnia

Back, the old, everything be renovated. Words of St. Thomas Aquinas in the eucharistic hymn Sacris solemis juncta sint gaudia, he sings in the exposure of the Blessed Sacrament and which write as their declaration the more exalted modernists .

Recipio me ex timore

I get over the fear.

Recordare nec pertimueris

Remember and do not fear.

Rectam viam

On the good way.

Redde Caesari, quae sunt Caesaris, et quae sunt Dei, Deo

Give to the Caesar what is the Caesar, and to God what is of God.

Redde rationem

Account for and give reasons for your manner of behaving.

Reddet unicuique secundum operam ejus

Compensate each of them according to their works. Phrase taken from Saint Matthew the Evangelist 16.27.

Redeamus ad rem

Let get back to the issue. It is used when it is intended to suddenly interrupt an irritating digression.

Redemptio ab hostibus

Redemption of the enemies. The one who redeemed or rescued through money payment a prisoner or roman citizen obtained the mancipium over him, while he did not pay the rescue payment. Pampaloni shows that in every texts of the Code or the Digest referring to this relation, the indication of the causa mancipii was replaced by the idea of a kind of pledge or ius retentionis (retention right)

Redolet Virgilium

Smells to Vigilious. Classical Latin phrase indicating that a writing from a certain author smells or reminds the style of a certain classical author.



Regnum (omne) in seipsum divisum, desolabitur

Every kingdom divided in itself, is destroyed. Words of Jesus Christ generally used to show that the division of any power or hierarchy causes the destruction of the State permitting it.

Regnum coelorum vim patitur et violenti rapiunt illud

The kingdom of God suffers strength and the ones who make violence snatch it. Sentence of Saint Matthew the Evangelist 11.12, frequently used to appreciate the need to undertake the difficulties included in the exercise of merit to reach God’s kingdom.

Rei pretium

The value of a thing, to assess.

Rei publicae

Of the public ventures, of the State.


Relicta non bene parmula

Abandoning badly his shield, that is, escaping. Words of Quintus Horiatis Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) in his Ode II who says to his friend Pompey Varo: "with you I have seen Filip and the fugitives who quickly escaped, abandoning their shield". Before Horace, Archilochus, Alcaeus and Anacreon had already done such confidences. These words are ironically used to the ones who run away from the enemy.


His estate

Rem acu tetigisti

You have touched the issue with a needle. It is used to express that the person to whom is talked to has perfectly understood the issue. Equivalent to the Spanish phrase: You have put the finger in the wound.

Rem cum re

One thing with another, join combining.

Rem patriam

His estate, his treasury.

Rem rei

One thing to another.

Rem rei, rem cum re

One thing with respect to another, or with another.

Removere omnia quae obstant

Remove all the obstacles.

Requiescat in pace

Rest in peace. Words sung in the officiate of deceased and which are frequently engraved on the sepulchral slab and the obituaries, its abbreviation being R. I. P.

Rerum Deus tenax vigor

The hymn that the Roman church uses every day at none. It is created in a dimeter iambric poem, and even though it is short it seems that its author, St. Ambrose , put all his soul therein. It has a great biblical color and breaths a kind of soft melancholy and nostalgia of the sky. Fortunately, the renaissance proofreaders did not touch it.

Rerum Novarum

Of the new things. First words used as title of the Encyclic De conditione opificum (about the condition of the workers), published by the Pope Leon XIII, on May 15, 1891.

Res agitur tua paries cum proximus ardet

It is about your own thing when the wall of your neighbor’s house burns. Hex Latin meter by which it is expressed that the tragedies of our neighbors shall concern and affect us due to their proximity.

Res angusta domi

Scarce resources at home. According to Juvenal (S tira III) scarcity at home many times prevents the honorable man from breaking through the society.

Res de re praedicari

This logical maxim indicates that preaching should refer to the same order, it would not be lawful to go from the pure representation to the represented reality, or vice versa.

Res difficilis atque omnium difficillima

Difficult or rather too difficult thing.

Res et sacramentum

Scholastic theologian generally distinguish in sacraments three elements referred to as: sacramentum tantum, res tantum and res et sacramentum. From the assumption by all accepted, that any sacrament is a symbol or signal, they distinguish between the symbol and the signified thing; what only indicates, is named sacramentum tantum (only symbol) what is only meaning, res tantum (signified things and not symbol); what signifies and is a meaning, res et sacramentum (signified things and symbol that signifies).

Res flagitatur a me

I am asked one thing.

Res judicata pro veritate accipitur

Res judicata matter is accepted as truth. It is also generally said: Res judicata pro veritate habetur (res judicata thing is considered as truth ). Legal aphorism of Ulpianus in the Digest. According to this legal postulate what is definitely formally decided, should not be analyzed.

Res judicata pro veritate habetur

Res judicata thing is considered as truth. This roman law postulate applied to other legislations by virtue of which what is finally decided is unable to be destroyed with the exception of very few cases where an appeal for cassation progresses and it is upheld by virtue of Civil and Criminal law provisions.

Res militaris

The art of war.

Res novare

To do a revolution.

Res nullius

Of nobody, what belongs to nobody, what is ownership of nobody. The land is never considered as res nullius, as a thing without owner.

Res nullius fit primi occupantis

What belongs to nobody is owned by the first occupier. According to this legal rule, are obtained through tenure those properties which are obtained due to their nature and have no owner, such as hidden treasuries, abandoned personal property and the animals which can be hunted or fished.

Res perit domino suo

The thing is lost for its owner. According to this roman law rule accepted by all legislations, damage resulting from the sold thing is borne by the owner of the thing when said damage is caused by force majure.

Res sacra miser

The miserable is a holy thing. This expression indicates the respect to be felt for the miserable.

Res tua agitur

It is about your issue. It refers to one concerns or is convenient to us.

Responde mihi quantas habeo iniquitates

Answer (and tell me) how many inequities I have. Taken from the book of Job.

Restitutio in integrum

Complete restitution. Reintegration of a minor or another privileged person to all his actions and rights.

Risum Teneatis amici?

Could you avoid you laugh, friends? Portion of a poem of Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) in Poetic Art or Epistle to the Pisos, cited when talking nonsense.

Risus abundat in ore stultorum

Laugh is plenty in the mouths (lips) of the foolish. Popular ancient Latin maxim.

Roma locuta, causa finita

Rome has talked, the cause has ended.

Saepe id ex meo socero audivi

Many times the opposite to my father in law.

Saepe in eum locum ventum est ut

Frequently things reached a point that.

Salus populi suprema lex esto:

The good of the people be the supreme law. Phrase mentioned by the Romans when the Republic was under risk of a serious danger. It indicates that all legal provisions should be subordinate to the good of the country. It seems to have been taken from the De Legibus III of Cicero.It is frequently used to indicate that the interest of the whole should be the basis of any legal provision over the individual interest. The ones using this expression with reference to the care the State should have over the body health, hygiene, etc, use this term mistakenly.

Salutem et apostolicam benedictionem:

Health and apostolic blessing. Greeting formula with which pontiff Romans tend to seal the bulls.

Salvator mundi:

Title of the bull published by Boniface VIII, by which the king of France, Phillip IV was dispossessed of the clergy tribute right without the express authorization of the Ultimate Pontiff

Sancta simpliciter!:

¡Sancta simpliciter!.Phrase which is said to have been mentioned by John Hus (1369-1415), while he was being burnt in the bonefire when he saw a woman who under a religious fury, approached him throwing a bundle of brushwood to the bonefire. It is said that this exclamation was of compassion to the ignorance, and this is the sense in which the term is generally used .


Approval. Formal act by which the State chief confirms a law or statute. The approval is the legal act which gives force to the laws and makes them binding if they are followed by the enactment.


From the Greek satyriasis. State of morbid excitement of the male sex organs which boosts the man to perform frequently the venereal act.

Satis habeo haec dicere:

I am glad to say this.

Scalarum gradus male haerentes:

Badly affirmed stair footsteps.


Se ad scribendum dedere

Commence to write.

Se ad voluntatem alicuius:

Join the wishes of somebody.

Se alicui:

Bond in marriage .

Se auctorare (or) auctorari:

Undertake. To be a surety, bailee.

Se comparare:

Prepare oneself, prevent so that.

Se concitare:

Plunge, provoke.

Se dedere alicui, alicui rei:

Devote to somebody, or something.

Se dice en este principio que todo argumento que pruebe demasiado, esto es, que demuestre ser verdad aquello que se admite comúnmente falso, o que es falso al menos según el que usa de tal argumento; esto no tiene ninguna fuerza. La verdad de este princ

Se evolvere:

To go rolling.

Se externis moribus:

To pollute with strange habits.

Se iactare de aliqua re:

To boast about something.

Se in hortis:

To hide in the gardens.

Se intendentibus tenebris:

Dark starting to extend.

Se luce orbare:

Take off ones life.

Se molestiis:

To free from the cares.

Se obligare scelere (u) obligari fraude:

Blame oneself for a crime.

Se rudem fingere:

Pretend to be naive

Sectio bonorum:

Property section. Property execution proceeding used by the roman state against his debtors. During the first time, the State, without the need of a judgment, was able to take possession of the taxation debtor, as well as of the one preventing the application of said taxation by the lack of attendance to the census operation and to sell him abroad as slave and even to punish him with death. The ones in charge of the execution for State Debts were the censors and mainly the questors; but they were unable by themselves to deprive anybody of their freedom or life, instead they had to resort to the consuls intervention. The last proceeding was the one generally used by which the property was sold at public auction, after the prior corresponding announcement (sectio bonorum), this method being one by which the quiritaria property could be achieved, passing to the purchaser who was also protected by the interdictum sectorium. This proceeding was copied by the praetor, who applied it to the private debtors under the venditio bonorum (property sale).

Secundo amni:

Following the current; downstream.

Sed nunc non erat his locus:

But it was not time for that. Latin phrase of the Horace’s epistle to the Pisos. It is applied in order to imply the inconvenience of a cite or comment .


Sedition. Turbulent popular insurgence against the sovereign.


Seduction. Action or effect of seducing. Suggestive action exercised by one person over the character of the other person, in order to determine his behavior towards the intended direction.

Senatus iussit ut:

The senate decreed that.

Sententiae apertae:

Diafans thoughts.

Sepulcri violatio:

Violation of grave. In ancient Rome, the grave (that under the law it included the grave, the monument and the land, square or rectangular surrounding it ) was dedicated to Manes Gods and guaranteed by the religion; therefore it was not able to be sold or granted in any manner. Violation of grave consisted of any of the following: destruction of the monument, use of the materials, engravings, statutes, etc., for other purposes; transformation into private property or room by sale or purchase, whether by usurpation; introduction inside the grave of corpses without right of occupancy; exhumation of corpses without the authorization of the great pontiff or the emperor; theft of dresses, jewel, etc.

Sermonem alicuius:

The words of somebody.

Servus pecus:

Cattle, crowd. Name or qualifier that Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.) gives to imitators

Servus servorum Dei:

Deer of God’s deers. Title given by the sovereign Pontiff (The Pope) when commencing official documents.

Sese dedere:


Severitatem probo... sed eam modicam:

I prove severity…but, if moderate.

Si audes:

If you want. If you consider it convenient.

Si fore vis sanus, ablue saepe manus:

If you want to waste health, wash frequently your hands. Maxim and postulate of the school of Salerno, ratified by all the specialist in hygiene of all the places and times.

Si forte:

If by chance

Si fortuna volet, fies de rhetore consul:

If fortunes mists, you will pass from an impostor to a consul. Latin proverb having its strict interpretation in the Castilian proverb: God give you luck, son; knowledge is worth little.

Si hoc fas est dictu:

It is permitted to use this expression.

Si qua calamitas accidisset:

If there was a misfortune.

Si quis pepigerit ne:

If somebody had set forth that no.

Si sciens fallo:

If I deceive on purpose.

Si tibi convenit:

If it is convenient to you.

Si vales bene est, ego valeo:

I will celebrate you are well, I am.

Sibi coronam ad caput:

A crown on the head.

Sibi domum:

To choose a house.


In itself.

Similia similibus curantur:

Illnesses cure with similar medicines. Fundamental principle of homeopathic, which states that illnesses are cured through the medicines producing effects similar to the ones of the illness that is being treated.

Simul atque:

As soon as.

Simul et hoc cogita:

Think also over this at the same time.


Simulation. Apparent alteration of the real cause, type or purpose of an act or contract. Under the Law, the most important aspects of simulation are the following three: as cause of nullity of the acts and contracts, as offence and as a means to try to avoid a legal duty .

Sin minus:

But if not

Sine Baccho et sine Cerere firget Venus:

Without Baco and without Ceres, Venus is cold. Expression that is used in order to express, on the contrary sense, that prudence is an important element of self control.

Sine die:

Without date. Used to express that a resolution, agreement, etc, is postponed to an uncertain day .

Sine mercede:

For free.

Sine nomine vulgus:

The populace to the crowd without name. Used to refer to the mass audience.

Sine numero:

Without account and number.

Sine qua non:

Without which no. It is a conditional.

Sine tua molestia:

Without this causing dissatisfaction to you.

Sol lucet omnibus:

The sun shines for everybody. Generally used in other cases to support the one to whom is intended to be deprived of a benefit that should be available to the ordinary man. The equivalent Castilian expression: When God dawns, it does for everybody. .

Solutio indebiti:

Undue payment. Quasicontract appearing as a consequence of the most important conditio sine causa accepted by the roman law (conditio indebiti), created by the Digest of the Institute in order to prevent the enrichment without lawful cause, deriving from a payment made by mistake and not corresponding to a certain debt of the one who made that payment or a credit corresponding to the one who received it. It is one of the quasicontracts.

Spem inter et metum:

Between hope and fear.

Standum est chartae:

Be to the letter. Latin phrase equivalent to the aragonese legal language stating to be to the instrument evidencing any right or supporting a claim; therefore stating that "we should not strictly adhere to the letter of jurisdiction, but that we should not adhere to the jurisdiction there being a letter: Far from referring to the letter of the jurisdiction, the individual will opposes to the jurisdiction ".

Stare ab aliquo:

To be on the side of somebody, to be for somebody.

Status domus:

The state of the home.


State or condition.


Stipulation, compromise

Stomachum in aliquem:

His got angry against somebody.


Rape. Violence against a virgin. Fleshy access of a man to a well respected woman, older than twelve and younger than twenty three, obtained through breach of trust or deceit. In a general sense any type of dishonesty. In its legal sense at the beginning it meant any illegal sexual action including even the adultery; thereafter, the illegal sexual union with a free person having an honest life; which is the most generally accepted meaning, even though there are some who consider the term rape in its strict sense meaning the defloration of a virgin.

Sua lege Damnatus:

Condemned according to his own law.

Suadeo tibi ne legas:

I advice you not to read

Suae quemque fortunae paenitet:

Nobody is happy with his luck.

Suapte manu:

From his own hand.

Suas fortunas in dubium:

His destiny by chance.

Suas laudes cum aliquo:

Divide his own glory with another .

Suavi mare magno:

It is nice to see the fluttered sea. Thought of Titus Lucretius Carus (98-55 B.C.) in his poem De Rerum Natura (From the nature of the things ).

Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re:

Softly in the manner, strongly in the thing. Latin expression that expresses the convenience to harmonize the energy with the gentleness on the management of the issues. It is a phrase of Marcus Favius Quintilianus (35-96) roman age author, who considers it a rule of success.

Sub (o in) dictione alicuius esse:

To be under somebody's control.

Sub hasta vendi:

To be sold at auction.

Sub iugum mittere:

To make it pass under the yoke.

Sub luce maligna:

With scarce light

Sub nomine pacis bellum latet:

Under the name of peace war is incubated.

Sub nomine pacis belum latet:

Under the name of peace war is incubated.

Sub oculis omnium:

To the sight of everybody.

Sub tegmini fagi:

To the shadow of a hollow. Hemistich of Virgilius, generally cited to refer to the serenity of the one living in the country, far from business.

Sublata causa, tolliter effectus:

Having removed the cause, the effect disappears.


Succession. Action and effect of succeeding.

Sui liberandi gratia:

To free.

Sui librandi causa:

To be freed.

Sum apud patrem, apud moderatorem:

I am in the home of my father, in the chamber of the director.

Sumissa voce.

At middle voice. Latin expression used in the past in singing, which later was replaced by the Italian sotto voce, piano, etc. to indicate the singing at middle voice.

Summum jus, summa injuria:

The strictest law is the highest injustice. Phrase taken by Cicero in his work De Oficiis (About the occupations), where the great speaker did only transcribe an old proverb. In the biblical book of Ecclesiastes 7.17 it is read: noli esse justus multum (do not intend to be too much fair). And Publius Terentius (185-159) A.C.) in Heautontim IV says: Dicunt: jus summum saepe summa malitia (says: total law its frequently total malice). This phrase suggests that in some cases the strict construction and application of the law, can cause be a real inequity.

Summus mons:

The summit of the mountain.

Suo incommodo:

By his own misfortune.


Latin term that in commerce means an excess in the credit or amount over the debit or liabilities, and in public administration, excess of income over expenses. It does not have a plural.

Superstitio in qua inest timor:

The superstition that feeds fear.

Supremum iter:

To do the last trip; the one to death.

Sustine et abstine:

Endure and avoid. Maxim of Stoic School philosophers which includes the opinion that dictates to endure the unavoidable evils and abstain from the pleasures opposing the own freedom.

Taberna argentaria:

Office of the moneychanger.

Tabla Bantina:

Table found in 1793 near the place where the roman city of Banzia (Bantina) was located . It is made of bronze and has a Latin engraving on one side and another dark on the other. In fact it is just a portion representing a sixth of its original dimensions. The Latin engraving is a law of the Gracci times, probably a portion of a lex septundarum; the dark engraving was probably a portion of the statute lex civitatis of Banzia city, written as an example of the roman institutions. This particular table is kept in the Naples National Museum .

Tabulae sunt in medio:

Records are at the sight of everybody. Different series. The authority had not control over the custody of the copies yet. When the temple of the Capitol got fire in the year 70 of our time, the fire destroyed 3000 tables made of bronze, where the oldest treaties made with foreign nations were engraved. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, roman emperor in 69 to 79, wanted to rebuild the scripts by looking for the copies that could survive. Many equally beautiful documents covered the walls of holy buildings, such as the temple of Diana in the Aventine, the temple of Dius Fidius, the temple of Moneta, etc. The big aristocratic families in general had near their atrium (front foyer) a room specially prepared to keep their tables, that is the documents related to their business, nobility titles, etc, referred to as tablinum. There were not few official documents kept in the private archives during the first centuries of Rome. As from the V century the building where the body of the laws, the senatusconsultus and plebiscite were kept was the Treasury of the temple of Saturn, located at the end of the Forum the foundation of which comes from the time of Valerio Consulado 509 B.C., one of the founders of the Roman Republic and referred to as Poplicola due to his popularity as friend of the people. What is beyond doubt is that this deposit which is located in the Senate premises, should be considered as the first cradle of roman archives. Its importance increased century after century during the existence of all the Republic till it turned into a service center regularly organized. Romans took severe measures in order to prevent those documents deposited in their archives from being altered or damaged, mostly the ones belonging to the State.In the middle of political fights which caused the fall of the Republic the different political parties mutually accused themselves of a lot of crimes. Accusers and accused with the help of the service staff, entered the Senate Tabularium, some in order to take secret copies of documents, others to remove senatusconsultum before they were duly registered in order to deprive them of any legal value and others in order to falsify books by introducing the false ones in the middle of the authentic ones. The quaestores urbani who were young magistrates initiating their careers, had no experience or authority to prevent fraudulent manors which in addition were favored by subordinate agents working under their instruction. Passion and money encouraged during agitated times the creation of severe measures and regulations.


Tabulas testamenti in aerario

Deposit at the exchequer the originals of a will

Talis pater, talis filius:

Such father, such a child. Should be said: qualis pater, talis filius.

Tam magis... quam magis:

Moreover... inasmuch as.

Tanquam tabula rassa

As a clean slate. Generally applied to the very ignorant person, to the student who by reason of his incompentence or laziness has not taken advantage of his studies, etc. Generally ends with the additional expression: in qua nihil est depinctum (where there is nothing painted).

Tantae molis erat:

It was such a hard venture. Words used by Virgilus with reference to the foundation of the roman people. (romanam condere gentem), and generally applied to any issue which due to its significance demands an extraordinary effort or work.

Tantae ne animis coelestibus irae!:

So much anger can enter the soul of the Gods!. Words of the book II of the Aeneid of Virgilus, when Eneas refers to his venture to Dido, and which is generally applied to the extreme worshipper, this being its meaning: So much anger fits in the worshipping souls!.

Tantum valet res quantum vendit potest:

The thing is worth the less you can sell it for. Aragonese legal principle applicable to sales and other contracts which cannot be revoked due to price injury.

Te obtestor ut:

I invoke you to. Offer as witness.

Te oro des operam...:

I beg you to try....

Tellum imbelle sine ictu:

Dart without force and unable to hurt. Hemistich of Virgilus in the Aeneid II which contemptuously refers to a hit that either hurts by the clumsiness of the one giving it or the superiority of the one receiving it.



Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris:

If the sky gets cloudy you will be left alone. Poem of Ovid which indicates the abandonment which is generally felt by a child on difficult times who on wealthy times was surrounded by a lots of friends; this idea being included in the hexameter: Donec eris felix multos numerabis amicos (while you are happy you will have lots of friends).

Tempus alicuius:

Steal somebody’s time; make somebody waste his time.


Time. Duration of the things subject to move.

Teneo lupum auribus:

I have the wolf seized by the ears. It is used to express that a difficulty has been defeated. Also referred to as tenere lupum auribus.

Tereminus qui (ut quo) y terminus quo (ut quod):

They are the reasons by which an individual receives a compensation or quality and the individual who receives said confirmations or designations.

Termini impertinentes:

Cheeky terms. Those which are neither opposing nor do one lead to the other (white or black).

Termini pertinentes:

Proper terms. These are the terms opposed by interference or correlation, for example: the white and the black, the reason and the freedom, respectively.

Terminus a quo:

Term as from which. Date or moment upon which a term starts to run. Expression generally used in every process, whether it be real or mental. It expresses the limit from which a phenomenon or event commences: it is the starting point.

Terminus actionis formalis:

The term of the formal action. That which in a self and immediate manner is obtained through the action.

Terminus actionis:

The term of the action. The term that is executed by the action itself.

Terminus ad quem:

Term until which. Date or moment when the term ends. Expression generally used in every process, whether it be real or mental. It expresses there or the moment when a process is closed or ends; it is the point of arrival.

Terminus enuntiationis

End of the statement 

Terminus intrinsecus unionis:

Inherent term of union. It is used under the hilemorphic Aristotelian with reference to the theory the extreme of a compound where there is no union, which as we know, is an entity different from the joined terms. The shape of the compound was the inherent term of the matter with the shape: this union is received by the matter which in a way, supports and adheres it, while it is not supported or adhered by the shape.

Terminus primae intentionis y terminus sencudae intentionis

The term of the original objective intention, that is the essence of the represented thing, and the term of the second objective intention, that is the universal logical relation by which the thing is thought (genre, specie, etc.).

Terminus rei:

Term of the thing. The one who finally does the substance.

Terminus secundum essentiam rei:

Terms according to the essence of the thing. It is the last difference, which determines or limits the specific nature of a being.

Terminus secundum quantitatem:

Term according to the quantity. It is the limit of an extension, such as the dot to the line.

Terra fruges:

Fruits of the land/earth.

Terra in medio mundi sita est:

The earth is in the centre of the world.

Terra marique:

By land and sea.

Terram arato:

The land and the plow.

Terris proam, vultus, animum:

The bow to the shore, the face attention towards.




Witnesses. Person that gives testimony of something or that testifies to it.


Testimony. Instrument authorised by a notary that attests a fact, transfers a document either in whole or in part or summarises a document by relation.

Testis locuples:

Reliable witness.

Testis unus, testis nullus:

One witness, no witness. Ancient legal principle according to which one witness does not establish the truth of a fact.


Text. What has been said or written by an author, except for glosses, notes or comments made about that.

Timeo ne non:

I am afraid not.

Timeo ne pater veniat aut me puniat:

I am afraid that my father comes and punishes me.

Timeo ne:

I am afraid that.

Timidis virtutem:

Courage to the cowards.

Timor aliquantus:

Not a slight fear.

Tito Flavio Vespasiano, emperador romano del 69 al 79, quiso reconstruir los textos buscando las copias que pudiesen subsistir. Bastantes documentos igualmente preciosos cubrían las paredes de otros edificios sagrados, tales como el templo de Diana en el


Surrender of a city.


Transcription. Act of transcribing.

Tres opiniones existen. La primera lo afirma, fundándose en un texto de Cicerón que dice: Provocationem autem etiam a regibus fuisse declarant pontificii libri (De Republica, II), haciendo notar que el mismo Cicerón afirma en otro lugar haber leído po


Court. Place assigned to judges to administer justice and render judgment. Judicial power’s main duties integrating its total duty are three: knowing the facts (notio, coginitio), deciding if they comply with the law or not, resolving upon this (judicium) and executing or enforcing the orders it issues (imperium).


Tua ista accusatio

Your accusation. With disdain, as in disputes, the adversary party was referred to as “that one” “that vile man.”     

Tulliolam C. Pisoni despondimus:

He has married my little Tulia to Piso.

Tunc ipsum:

Precisely then.

Turba in auxilium convocata est:

The crowd was called to come to the aid.

Turres ad opera Caesaris:

The towers to Caesar’s entrenchment.


Guardianship. Power granted in the absence of the parental one in order to look after the person and the property of those who due to infancy or any other cause, lack full legal capacity. Guardianship given by the family counsel or the judge is called guardianship ad litem. Guardianship of an incompetent is the one created to look after the person and the property of people of unsound mind. Legal guardianship is conferred by law. Testamentary guardianship is the one granted through a statement in a will by a person entitled to do so.  


Guardian. Person in charge of taking care of a person with limited civil capacity and administering his property.

Tuus colonus aut vicinus, aut cliens aut libertus, aut quivis qui...:

Your colonist or neighbour, customer or freedman, or anyone who…


Order published under this name in 641 by Emperor Constante, instigated by Paulo, bishop of Constantinople, who had substituted Pirro in that place. The order provided the following: “We prohibit our Catholic subjects to dispute in the future, in any sense whatsoever, over one or two operations or wills, notwithstanding what has been decided concerning the Incarnation of the Verb. We order them to abide by the Sacred Writings or the five general Councils and to the Father’s unique passages, whose doctrine is the Church’s rule, with no additions or reductions, without explanations pursuant to the dictam in private, but to maintain things in the way they were before these disputes, as if they had never arisen.” It later ordered that if those who went against this order were bishops or held another position in the clerical order, they had to be removed from their positions; if they were monks, they had to be excommunicated and removed from their convents; if they were officers, they had to be removed from their positions; if they were rich individuals, they had to be divested of their property; and the rest had to be physically punished. The Typus was so pernicious for the Catholic faith as Eraclio’s Ectesis had been and promoted heresy in another way.

Ubi autem dicti fori non suffecerint ad naturalem sensum vel aequitatem recurratur:

Aragonese Law legal principle contained in the first preface of the Aragonese privileges compiled in 1247, pursuant to which whenever the privilege issued to that effect is not sufficient to solve the matter or point at issue, natural reason or equity must be applied, that consequently, is expressly recognized as a source of Aragonese Law and is placed in a preferred position over Castilian Law or the one included in Castilian Law which was supplementary in Aragon before the enactment of the Civil Code.  

Ubi bene ibi patri:

Where you feel good, there is your homeland. This is applied to the indifferent or selfish man, to whom his own welfare is above all other feelings, even homeland.

Ubi eadem est ratio, eadem est o debet esse juris dispositio:

Legal principle whose meaning is: for the same reason, the same legal provision. This is the expression of the method of analogical application, based on the fact that equal cases must be handled equally. Undoubtedly, it has its origins in laws 12 and 13, title 3, book 1 and law 32, title 2, book 9 of the Digest, whose comments and glosses contain ancient references to it. Such principle inspires rule 36, title 3, Entry 7: "Aun dixeron, says the Rule of the Code of the Wise King that laws must be made in accordance with common occurrences. Thus, the Ancient did not make any to regulate rare circumstances, because they thought that they could be judged through a written law applying to a similar case.” This same principle has inspired some judgments by the Supreme Court in some places.

Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus:

Where the law does not make any distinction, we do not have to make a distinction. This interpretation rule, permanently used by Justice Courts, results essential in the explanation and sense of laws, and must be strictly observed, because, as Salvador Viada and Vilaseca (1843-1904) say, establishing exceptions when the law is speaking in general terms constitutes a real arbitrariness. Law 13 stated that laws had to be straightly understood and interpreted, in the manner that results healthier and more beneficial, without losing the natural sense of words, because “knowledge of laws involves not only learning to decorate their letters, but also truly understanding them.” Nevertheless, not all authors admit the importance and significance that this legal interpretation rule involves and, thus, Felipe Sanchez Roman (1852-1916), in his work Civil Law Studies (Estudios del Derecho Civil), when citing as an example, some of the more commonly used legal interpretation rules, including the one we are analyzing, argues: “Commentators’ speculations and the use of Law schools have established a series of rules that, though revealing inventiveness and offering resources for academic and forensic discussions, and based, in some cases, on undeniable truths, lack the consistency mark any scientific principle has, and provide elements for the defense of all kinds of cases.”

Ubi non est justitia, ibi non potest esse jus:

Estoic philosophers’ maxim repeated by Marcus Tulius Cicero (106-43 b.C.) contained in his treatise De Legibus, thus attributed to this Roman jurist. It states, literally translated, that “wherever there is not justice, there is no law,” or what is the same, that the notion or possibility of the existence of law in opposition to justice is both conceived.

Ubi non est lex nec praevaricatio:

Legal postulate that means: wherever there is no law, there is no delinquency. This rule of law determines that an action, however bad it may be, cannot be a crime if the law has not previously defined it and punished it as such. It is included in the Criminal Code of 1870, when it states that “in the event a Court knows about an act it deems that should be penalized but that is not punished by the law, it will not carry out any process against him and will explain to the government the reasons why it believes that the act should be criminally penalized.” This principle has been stated in all civilized communities’ criminal legislations, according to Alejandro Groizard and Gomez de la Serna (1830-1919), in his work The Criminal Code of 1870, unified and annotated.

Ubi numerus testium non adjicitur etiam duo sufficiunt; pluribus enim elocutio duorum numero contenta est:

Whenever the number of witnesses is not established, two are sufficient, as, the plural includes number two. This interpretation rule for the application of laws which required in Roman Law, the presence of witnesses without mentioning the number of witnesses required for the efficiency and evidence of the act involved, was created by the jurist Domicius Ulpian (170-223) and included in the Digest. In his Theoretical-Legal Treatise about evidence in Civil and Criminal Law (Tratado Teórico-Legal de las pruebas en el Derecho Civil y Penal), Eduardo Bonnier (1808-1877) says that this text has suffered abuses trying to be used successfully to support the maxim Testis unus, testis nullus, which was introduced in Law during the Late Empire’s time. Those who thought that argue that “if two witnesses can be sufficient, then at least two are necessary.”

Ubi Petrus, ibi Ecclesia:

Where Peter is, there is the Church. Phrase by Saint Ambrose (344-397).

Ubi plura nitent, non paucis offendar maculis quos parum cavet humana natura:

Where many beauties shine, some stains, from which human nature rarely escapes, do not offend. Phrase by Quintus  Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b.C.) in his Art of Poetry, where he says that a good work does not lose its merit because of some lack or mole.

Ubi pugnantia inter se in testamento juberentur, neutrum ratum est:

In the event a will contains contradictory provisions, none of them will be valid. Classic rule of interpretation of testamentary provisions created by the jurist Hugo de Celso (century XVI). This hermeneutical criterion is perfectly justified, since when applying the will, it is essential to know which is the real last will of the testator, what becomes impossible when two provisions or clauses are strictly contradictory, either because of the express way of stating it, or because the fulfillment of one of them makes it absolutely impossible to comply with the other one, and there is no way, in that case, of investigating which of the two the testator would have considered the prevailing one.

Ubi societas, ibi jus:

Where society is, there is the Law. Legal philosophical maxim that states that, therefore, Law is an element without which no social life is possible.

Ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant:

What they turn into a desert, they call it the abode of peace. Passage by Publius Cornelius Tacitus (54-120) in which Galgacus refers to the Roman’s cruelty and ambition, who colored their devastations with the spicy pretext of civilization. Ubi sunt ergo ii, quos miseros dicis?: Where are, then, those you call wretch?

Ubi verba conjuncta non sunt, sufficit alterutrum esse factum:

Rule of law created by the jurist Julius Paul (¨ -235 a.C.) and included in law 110 of the Digest, according to which, when words are not joint, the performance of one of them will suffice. This principle is of special application for the fulfillment of alternative obligations and conditional or modal institutions with such character. 

Ubi verba non sunt ambigua non est locus interpretationis:

This Latin principle states that whenever words are not ambiguous, there is no room for interpretation. It is not accepted by everybody. In general, there is a tendency to consider that interpretation is an ordinary duty of all laws, whether clear or obscure. It was so expressed in a well known Roman text: Quanvis sit manifestum edictum praetoris attamen non est negligenda interpretatio ejus.


Where. This Latin adverb initiates a series of legal principles, aphorisms and axioms already known in Ancient Law and that have been adopted by Modern Law. The following are some of the main ubi:

Ubicumque sit res, pro domino suo clamat:

Wherever one thing is, it claims for its owner. Legal aphorism from Roman law, always invoked for redemption.

Ubinam gentium sumus?:

What country are we in? Oratorical exclamation by Cicero in his Catilinarian used to show the astonishment caused and the disapproval that deserves the fact of watching something that goes against moral principles or the law, especially when it involves an unjustified outrage perpetrated by means of force or public power.

Ubique et idem:

The same wherever. Latin phrase that Louis XIV directed to the marshal Enrique de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne (1511-1675), expressing that he succeeded in all battles in which he took part.

Ultra modum:

Beyond measure.

Ultro citro (o) ultro et citro:

From one part and the other, mutually.

Una opinión intermedia conjetura que la apelación al pueblo sólo tenía lugar siendo éste convocado por el mismo rey para decidir las cuestiones de competencia entre éste y los Tribunales populares, en virtud de la separación entre los delitos que c

Unde venis aut quo is?:

Where do you come from or where do you go to?


Inversion in the genital or homosexual sense. Inversion-depravity shows a vice rather than a morbid case. It is also called artificial inversion and pseudo inversion. On the other hand, real inversion is a way of mental degeneration. Inversion-perversion is recognised both in men in women. In women, it offers an anomaly of congenital character as to the rare form of the retarded inversion. There is a homosexual inclination with repulsion towards the opposite sex or indifference. The congenital character of uranism is highlighted for its precociousness a long time before puberty. Once it is reached, the anomaly is revealed by unequivocal signs, searching for the adequate performance. The name uranism, created by K. Ulrichs, should only be applied to the variety of inversions-pervertions.

Urbem moenibus:

The city of walls.


Occupy the city.

Usque adeo, usque adeo dum:

Such a long time that, such a long time to.


It was the place reserved for the cremation of Ancient Rome’s bodies, a habit Romans acquired (as many others) from the Greek, who, on the tenth day after the death, burned the body and, for that purpose, they put together out of the city all the wood that had been obtained during the last nine days for such purpose. They built the stake, whose dimensions varied according to the importance of the dead person. Patrocle’s stake, according to Homer, was one hundred feet long by one hundred feet wide. Once the stake was prepared and near the time fixed for the cremation, the funeral procession started; the offspring usually took their parents’ bodies. Once near the pyre, those responsible for the cremation examined if everything was ready for the ceremony and, once it was confirmed, the closer relatives placed the funeral bed on the stake, which was richly decorated with  hangings and flower garlands. While this was verified, animals were sacrificed to the deceased’s manes, and they had to be completely pure and black. Their fat was immediately removed and it was spread over the deceased’s body, from the head to the feet, mixing it with smelly oils and nice perfumes. Cups full of myrrh and oil and sometimes honey and wine were also placed around the funeral bed; the wine, because it was considered a friend of dead bodies, the oil, in order to ignite and consume the wood more easily. The victims’ bodies were placed next to the deceased, and when the deceased was a sovereign or prince, instead of irrational animals, slaves were sacrificed.


Usufruct. Right to use another’s property and enjoy its fruits. Justinian admits it in his Institutions saying that it is: Jus alienis rebus utendi fruendi; salva rerum substantia (right to use and enjoy another’s property without altering its essence). Thus, it involves a person who has this right because it was granted to him (usufructuarius, fructuarius); property under usufruct and that is not destroyed by use, as its substance remains unimpaired (res fructuaria), and to the owner of the property (propietarius, dominus propietatis). The usufructuary’s right involves the use of the property under usufruct (usus, utendi) and enjoyment of the fruits (fructus fruendi), being the owner only entitled to its transfer (abusus, abutendi, nuda propietas). The right to use does not include the right to enjoy; but there is right to use since it is necessary for its exercise; so, they cannot be separated in the usufructu, because, if only use were granted, there would be no usufruct and, when the right to enjoy is granted, the right to use is implied. The usufructuary must maintain the property in the same condition it was when he received it (salva rerum substantia), as he is not entitled to transfer it. 


Usury. Interest collected for the money or goods under the contract of mutum or loan. It is one of the denominations given to interest in Rome. Ethimologically, it derives from usu, though not only in a literal sense,  but rather in the sense of the price of use. It can be defined by saying that it represents the profit obtained for a loan in good title, but that for being excessive, it is fair. That it the exact idea; but as Antonin Lopez Pelaez (1866-1918) notes in his opuscule, The Fight Against Usury (La Lucha contra la Usura), it is used in general terms to designate any injustice in any contract, any oppression or excessive levy imposed upon others, taking advantage of their need to become richer.


Supplementary mode of the confarreatio and coemptio. It was a type of usu-capio of the wife, because if she remained under her husband’s power for a year with no interruption of three nights (trinoctio) even when marriage were null for lacking confarreatio and coemptio, it was still valid, the husband acquiring the manus over the wife. The usus differed from ordinary usurpation in that the first could be interrupted by the wife’s will. According to Cicero (106-43 b.C.), in order that the woman could get married by usus, her will was necessary, for this reason, many authors believe that it only referred to the alieni iuris woman, as such requirement was not necessary in the case of the sui iuris, who was independent. 

Ut ait Cicero:

As Cicero says.

Ut aiunt:

As they say.

Ut circumit sol:

As the sun goes round, go from one to the other, from one place to another.

Ut convenerat:

As it had been agreed upon.

Ut inutiles oppido excedant:

The useless leave the city.

Ut ita dicam:

To put it in some way.

Ut primum occasio data est:

As soon as the opportunity arose.

Ut quisque maxime ad se facta refert, ita minime est vir bonus:

The more a man refers his acts to himself, the less honest he is.

Ut sementem feceris, ita metes:

You will collect what you have sowed.

Ut solet, ut fieri solet:

As it is usually done.



Utinam ne mortales essemus:

Might heaven wish we were not mortal.

Utinam neque ipsum neque me paeniteret:

I wish nothing happened to him or to me. 

Utrum haec vera an falsa sunt?

Is that true or false?

Varietas delectat:

Variety delights. Latin expression equivalent to the Spanish: Taste is found in the variety.

Vera audire:

To hear truths.

Verba facere:

Speak, empty voice.

Verba sunt:

These are words.

Veris effervescentibus

With passionate words, with fiery style.

Veritas patefacta

Naked truth.

Vestis virum facit

The dressing describes the man. Latin expression contrary to the Spanish: habit does not make the monk and under a bad cap there is a good drinker.

Vestitus agrestis

Country persons’ way of dressing.

Viam munire

Open up a path.

Vicus sceleratus

Way of crime. The name of the street where Tulia, daughter of Servius Tulius, legendary king of Rome, passed over her father’s body dethroned by her husband, Lucius Tarquinius, after killing him in the street by the patricians disgusted because of the Constitution passed by Servius Tulius (king of Rome between 578-534 b.C.) which established a new classification of the community intended to the gradual political exemption of the plebeians.

Videatur ab omnibus

It is a formula used for cases submitted to the Court of the Rota Romana. As a general rule, once the case was closed, it could be appealed to the same Court, since in that Court issues were not heard by all the auditors; however, when the clause Videatur ab omnibus is included, the right to appeal is not granted, except that the condemned has looked for other remedies, then he waits for the Court to revoke the judgment a priori.

Video lupum

I see the wolf. Said when one can see the person one was talking about.

Video meliora proboque, deteriora sequor

I see the best and I approve it, but I follow the worst. Words of Publius Ovidius Naso (43 b.C. - 17 a.C.) that he puts in Medea’s mouth (Metamorphoses VII) and that admirably describe the man whose straight intelligence teaches the way to duty and truth, but to whom weakness and ambition drag to evil. In the letter to the Romans (7,15) Saint Paul said something similar: Non quod volo bonum, hoc ago; sed quod odi malum, illud facio, and Louis Racine (1692-1763) in his Cantiques (III) says: Je ne fais le bien que j'aime, et je fais le mal que je hais.

Vidistine Romam?

Have you seen Rome?

Vili emere

To buy at a low price.

Vincula epistulae

The ties of a letter. 

Vinum bonum laetificat cor hominis

Good wine makes men’s hearts happy. Proverb taken from the Sacred Writings (Psalm 103, 15), usually applied to many cases.  

Vinum et mulieres apostatare faciunt sapientes

Wine and women make the wise apostatise. Words used by the book of Ecclesiastic (19,12) to praise the power wine and women have over men.


Violation. Carnal access with a woman against or without her will. This wrongful act is perpetrated against the woman’s will, for any cause, whether she lacked sound mind or were unable to resist. Violation against or without the woman’s will is considered to have been carried out when she had not reached the legal puberty age.

Vires mihi desunt

I already have no forces.

Viribus unitis

With a union of forces or with the forces united. Equal to the French expression: L'union fait la force; often used as a motto in coats of arms, books, etc.

Virtutem doctrina parit

Science creates virtue. Phrase by Horace admirably interpreted and glossed by Brother Benito Jeronimo Feijo (1676-1764) when he said: “Virtue, supreme ornament of the soul is the legitimate labor of science.” Horace said virtutem doctrina parit.

Vita defungi

To die.

Vivas in Deo

Lives in God. Formula often used by the first Christians to express their wish that someone enjoys eternal life and beatitudes.

Vivit eius mihi auctoritas

His authority is still in force for me.

Vix clamorem hostium, nedum impetum tulerunt

They hardly resisted the enemies’ clamor, they will not resist their impetus.

Vocari a fratre

To be called by his brother.

Voti damnari

To see his wishes become true.